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Viruses 2016, 8(4), 102; doi:10.3390/v8040102

Shutoff of Host Gene Expression in Influenza A Virus and Herpesviruses: Similar Mechanisms and Common Themes

1
Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
2
Post-Baccalaureate Research Education Program, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
3
Graduate Program in Molecular Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Craig McCormick
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 April 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Subversion of Stress Responses and Translational Control)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [989 KB, uploaded 16 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

The ability to shut off host gene expression is a shared feature of many viral infections, and it is thought to promote viral replication by freeing host cell machinery and blocking immune responses. Despite the molecular differences between viruses, an emerging theme in the study of host shutoff is that divergent viruses use similar mechanisms to enact host shutoff. Moreover, even viruses that encode few proteins often have multiple mechanisms to affect host gene expression, and we are only starting to understand how these mechanisms are integrated. In this review we discuss the multiplicity of host shutoff mechanisms used by the orthomyxovirus influenza A virus and members of the alpha- and gamma-herpesvirus subfamilies. We highlight the surprising similarities in their mechanisms of host shutoff and discuss how the different mechanisms they use may play a coordinated role in gene regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: host shutoff; herpesviruses; influenza A virus; Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; herpes simplex virus; RNA degradation; transcription block host shutoff; herpesviruses; influenza A virus; Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; herpes simplex virus; RNA degradation; transcription block
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rivas, H.G.; Schmaling, S.K.; Gaglia, M.M. Shutoff of Host Gene Expression in Influenza A Virus and Herpesviruses: Similar Mechanisms and Common Themes. Viruses 2016, 8, 102.

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