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Viruses 2016, 8(3), 67; doi:10.3390/v8030067

Remodeling of the Host Cell Plasma Membrane by HIV-1 Nef and Vpu: A Strategy to Ensure Viral Fitness and Persistence

1
Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal (IRCM), 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, QC H2W 1R7, Canada
2
Department of Microbiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Tai
Received: 9 January 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Membranes and the Viral Infection Cycle)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1266 KB, uploaded 3 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

The plasma membrane protects the cell from its surroundings and regulates cellular communication, homing, and metabolism. Not surprisingly, the composition of this membrane is highly controlled through the vesicular trafficking of proteins to and from the cell surface. As intracellular pathogens, most viruses exploit the host plasma membrane to promote viral replication while avoiding immune detection. This is particularly true for the enveloped human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which assembles and obtains its lipid shell directly at the plasma membrane. HIV-1 encodes two proteins, negative factor (Nef) and viral protein U (Vpu), which function primarily by altering the quantity and localization of cell surface molecules to increase virus fitness despite host antiviral immune responses. These proteins are expressed at different stages in the HIV-1 life cycle and employ a variety of mechanisms to target both unique and redundant surface proteins, including the viral receptor CD4, host restriction factors, immunoreceptors, homing molecules, tetraspanins and membrane transporters. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of the Nef and Vpu targeting of host membrane proteins with an emphasis on how remodeling of the cell membrane allows HIV-1 to avoid host antiviral immune responses leading to the establishment of systemic and persistent infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; Vpu; Nef; host cell surface proteins; replication; immune evasion HIV-1; Vpu; Nef; host cell surface proteins; replication; immune evasion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sugden, S.M.; Bego, M.G.; Pham, T.N.; Cohen, É.A. Remodeling of the Host Cell Plasma Membrane by HIV-1 Nef and Vpu: A Strategy to Ensure Viral Fitness and Persistence. Viruses 2016, 8, 67.

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