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Viruses 2016, 8(11), 304; doi:10.3390/v8110304

Three-Dimensional Rotating Wall Vessel-Derived Cell Culture Models for Studying Virus-Host Interactions

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine—Phoenix, University of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
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Academic Editor: Charu Kaushic
Received: 13 August 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
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Abstract

The key to better understanding complex virus-host interactions is the utilization of robust three-dimensional (3D) human cell cultures that effectively recapitulate native tissue architecture and model the microenvironment. A lack of physiologically-relevant animal models for many viruses has limited the elucidation of factors that influence viral pathogenesis and of complex host immune mechanisms. Conventional monolayer cell cultures may support viral infection, but are unable to form the tissue structures and complex microenvironments that mimic host physiology and, therefore, limiting their translational utility. The rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor was designed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to model microgravity and was later found to more accurately reproduce features of human tissue in vivo. Cells grown in RWV bioreactors develop in a low fluid-shear environment, which enables cells to form complex 3D tissue-like aggregates. A wide variety of human tissues (from neuronal to vaginal tissue) have been grown in RWV bioreactors and have been shown to support productive viral infection and physiological meaningful host responses. The in vivo-like characteristics and cellular features of the human 3D RWV-derived aggregates make them ideal model systems to effectively recapitulate pathophysiology and host responses necessary to conduct rigorous basic science, preclinical and translational studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioreactor; emerging viruses; host immune mechanisms; human tissue engineering; in vitro cell culture; infectious disease; organotypic; pathophysiology; low fluid-shear; viral pathogenesis bioreactor; emerging viruses; host immune mechanisms; human tissue engineering; in vitro cell culture; infectious disease; organotypic; pathophysiology; low fluid-shear; viral pathogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gardner, J.K.; Herbst-Kralovetz, M.M. Three-Dimensional Rotating Wall Vessel-Derived Cell Culture Models for Studying Virus-Host Interactions. Viruses 2016, 8, 304.

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