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Viruses 2016, 8(10), 290; doi:10.3390/v8100290

The Role of Nuclear Antiviral Factors against Invading DNA Viruses: The Immediate Fate of Incoming Viral Genomes

1
Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité, MFP CNRS UMR 5234, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33076, France
2
Department of Infection Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8575, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jason Mercer
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Uncoating and Nuclear Import)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [254 KB, uploaded 22 October 2016]

Abstract

In recent years, it has been suggested that host cells exert intrinsic mechanisms to control nuclear replicating DNA viruses. This cellular response involves nuclear antiviral factors targeting incoming viral genomes. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is the best-studied model in this context, and it was shown that upon nuclear entry HSV-1 genomes are immediately targeted by components of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) and the nuclear DNA sensor IFI16 (interferon gamma inducible protein 16). Based on HSV-1 studies, together with limited examples in other viral systems, these phenomena are widely believed to be a common cellular response to incoming viral genomes, although formal evidence for each virus is lacking. Indeed, recent studies suggest that the case may be different for adenovirus infection. Here we summarize the existing experimental evidence for the roles of nuclear antiviral factors against incoming viral genomes to better understand cellular responses on a virus-by-virus basis. We emphasize that cells seem to respond differently to different incoming viral genomes and discuss possible arguments for and against a unifying cellular mechanism targeting the incoming genomes of different virus families. View Full-Text
Keywords: adenovirus; antiviral response; herpesvirus; incoming viral genomes; intrinsic immunity; IFI16; PML nuclear body adenovirus; antiviral response; herpesvirus; incoming viral genomes; intrinsic immunity; IFI16; PML nuclear body
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Komatsu, T.; Nagata, K.; Wodrich, H. The Role of Nuclear Antiviral Factors against Invading DNA Viruses: The Immediate Fate of Incoming Viral Genomes. Viruses 2016, 8, 290.

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