Next Article in Journal
Temporal Regulation of Distinct Internal Ribosome Entry Sites of the Dicistroviridae Cricket Paralysis Virus
Previous Article in Journal
Complete Genome Sequence of Germline Chromosomally Integrated Human Herpesvirus 6A and Analyses Integration Sites Define a New Human Endogenous Virus with Potential to Reactivate as an Emerging Infection
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2016, 8(1), 23; doi:10.3390/v8010023

Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments

1
Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Geoffrey Pope Building, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon EX4, UK
2
European Union Reference Laboratory for Crustacean Diseases, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Weymouth Laboratory, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Ploss
Received: 7 November 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2496 KB, uploaded 18 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD) has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host–pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host–pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: White Spot Syndrome Virus; host–pathogen interactions; viral infection pathway; endocytosis; stress responses; apoptosis; treatments; miRNA White Spot Syndrome Virus; host–pathogen interactions; viral infection pathway; endocytosis; stress responses; apoptosis; treatments; miRNA
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Verbruggen, B.; Bickley, L.K.; van Aerle, R.; Bateman, K.S.; Stentiford, G.D.; Santos, E.M.; Tyler, C.R. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments. Viruses 2016, 8, 23.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top