Next Article in Journal
The Emerging Role of miRNAs in HTLV-1 Infection and ATLL Pathogenesis
Next Article in Special Issue
Conformational Masking and Receptor-Dependent Unmasking of Highly Conserved Env Epitopes Recognized by Non-Neutralizing Antibodies That Mediate Potent ADCC against HIV-1
Previous Article in Journal
Using the Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase as a Model to Understand Viral Polymerase Structure, Function and Dynamics
Previous Article in Special Issue
Structures and Functions of Pestivirus Glycoproteins: Not Simply Surface Matters
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2015, 7(7), 3995-4046; doi:10.3390/v7072809

Genetic Diversity Underlying the Envelope Glycoproteins of Hepatitis C Virus: Structural and Functional Consequences and the Implications for Vaccine Design

1
School of Life Sciences, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
2
Institute of Experimental Virology, TWINCORE, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, A Joint Venture between the Medical School Hannover (MHH) and the Helmholtz Centrefor Infection Research (HZI), Hannover D-30625, Germany
3
German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Hannover-Braunschweig, Braunschweig 38124, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Ward
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 19 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Glycoprotein Structure)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2469 KB, uploaded 17 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

In the 26 years since the discovery of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) a major global research effort has illuminated many aspects of the viral life cycle, facilitating the development of targeted antivirals. Recently, effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens with >90% cure rates have become available for treatment of chronic HCV infection in developed nations, representing a significant advance towards global eradication. However, the high cost of these treatments results in highly restricted access in developing nations, where the disease burden is greatest. Additionally, the largely asymptomatic nature of infection facilitates continued transmission in at risk groups and resource constrained settings due to limited surveillance. Consequently a prophylactic vaccine is much needed. The HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are located on the surface of viral lipid envelope, facilitate viral entry and are the targets for host immunity, in addition to other functions. Unfortunately, the extreme global genetic and antigenic diversity exhibited by the HCV glycoproteins represents a significant obstacle to vaccine development. Here we review current knowledge of HCV envelope protein structure, integrating knowledge of genetic, antigenic and functional diversity to inform rational immunogen design. View Full-Text
Keywords: HCV; glycoproteins; structure; evolution; diversity; antigenicity; functionality; vaccine HCV; glycoproteins; structure; evolution; diversity; antigenicity; functionality; vaccine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tarr, A.W.; Khera, T.; Hueging, K.; Sheldon, J.; Steinmann, E.; Pietschmann, T.; Brown, R.J.P. Genetic Diversity Underlying the Envelope Glycoproteins of Hepatitis C Virus: Structural and Functional Consequences and the Implications for Vaccine Design. Viruses 2015, 7, 3995-4046.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top