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Viruses 2015, 7(5), 2592-2617; doi:10.3390/v7052592

Interaction of Human Tumor Viruses with Host Cell Surface Receptors and Cell Entry

1
Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
2
Division of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
3
MRC/UCT Receptor Biology Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joanna Parish
Received: 23 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumour Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [597 KB, uploaded 22 May 2015]

Abstract

Currently, seven viruses, namely Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), have been described to be consistently associated with different types of human cancer. These oncogenic viruses belong to distinct viral families, display diverse cell tropism and cause different malignancies. A key to their pathogenicity is attachment to the host cell and entry in order to replicate and complete their life cycle. Interaction with the host cell during viral entry is characterized by a sequence of events, involving viral envelope and/or capsid molecules as well as cellular entry factors that are critical in target cell recognition, thereby determining cell tropism. Most oncogenic viruses initially attach to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, followed by conformational change and transfer of the viral particle to secondary high-affinity cell- and virus-specific receptors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the host cell surface factors and molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic virus binding and uptake by their cognate host cell(s) with the aim to provide a concise overview of potential target molecules for prevention and/or treatment of oncogenic virus infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncogenic viruses; host cell receptors; viral attachment; entry mechanisms oncogenic viruses; host cell receptors; viral attachment; entry mechanisms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schäfer, G.; Blumenthal, M.J.; Katz, A.A. Interaction of Human Tumor Viruses with Host Cell Surface Receptors and Cell Entry. Viruses 2015, 7, 2592-2617.

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