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Viruses 2015, 7(4), 1578-1598; doi:10.3390/v7041578

Eradication of HIV-1 from the Macrophage Reservoir: An Uncertain Goal?

1
Department of Biology, SBA School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54792, Pakistan
2
Laboratory of Drug Discovery and Structural Biology, Health Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
3
Department of Virology, University of Franche-Comté, CHRU Besançon, UPRES EA4266 Pathogens and Inflammation, SFR FED 4234, 25030 Besançon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric O. Freed
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 31 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) establishes latency in resting memory CD4+ T cells and cells of myeloid lineage. In contrast to the T cells, cells of myeloid lineage are resistant to the HIV-1 induced cytopathic effect. Cells of myeloid lineage including macrophages are present in anatomical sanctuaries making them a difficult drug target. In addition, the long life span of macrophages as compared to the CD4+ T cells make them important viral reservoirs in infected individuals especially in the late stage of viral infection where CD4+ T cells are largely depleted. In the past decade, HIV-1 persistence in resting CD4+ T cells has gained considerable attention. It is currently believed that rebound viremia following cessation of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) originates from this source. However, the clinical relevance of this reservoir has been questioned. It is suggested that the resting CD4+ T cells are only one source of residual viremia and other viral reservoirs such as tissue macrophages should be seriously considered. In the present review we will discuss how macrophages contribute to the development of long-lived latent reservoirs and how macrophages can be used as a therapeutic target in eradicating latent reservoir. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; cART; latency; reservoirs; macrophage HIV-1; cART; latency; reservoirs; macrophage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abbas, W.; Tariq, M.; Iqbal, M.; Kumar, A.; Herbein, G. Eradication of HIV-1 from the Macrophage Reservoir: An Uncertain Goal? Viruses 2015, 7, 1578-1598.

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