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Viruses 2015, 7(2), 590-603; doi:10.3390/v7020590

Mutations in the Reverse Transcriptase and Protease Genes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 from Antiretroviral Naïve and Treated Pediatric Patients

1
Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
2
Department of Pediatrics, New Delhi 110029, India
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric O. Freed
Received: 29 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 February 2015 / Published: 10 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Gene Technology and Resistance to Viruses)
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Abstract

The success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is challenged by the emergence of resistance-associated mutations in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). In this study, resistance associated mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) genes in antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve and treated HIV-1 infected pediatric patients from North India were evaluated. Genotyping was successfully performed in 46 patients (30 ART naive and 16 treated) for the RT gene and in 53 patients (27 ART naive and 26 treated) for PR gene and mutations were identified using Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database. A major drug resistant mutation in RT gene, L74I (NRTI), and two such mutations, K101E and G190A (NNRTI), were observed in two ART naïve patients, while M184V was detected in two ART treated patients. Overall, major resistance associated mutations in RT gene were observed in nine (30%) and seven (36%) of ART naïve and treated children respectively. Minor mutations were identified in PR gene in five children. Few non-clade C viral strains (≈30%) were detected, although subtype C was most predominant. The screening of ART naïve children for mutations in HIV-1 RT and protease genes, before and after initiation of ART is desirable for drug efficacy and good prognosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: drug resistance; reverse transcriptase; protease; mutation; nucleoside RT inhibitors; non-nucleoside RT inhibitors drug resistance; reverse transcriptase; protease; mutation; nucleoside RT inhibitors; non-nucleoside RT inhibitors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bure, D.; Makhdoomi, M.A.; Lodha, R.; Prakash, S.S.; Kumar, R.; Parray, H.A.; Singh, R.; Kabra, S.K.; Luthra, K. Mutations in the Reverse Transcriptase and Protease Genes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 from Antiretroviral Naïve and Treated Pediatric Patients. Viruses 2015, 7, 590-603.

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