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Viruses 2015, 7(12), 6707-6715; doi:10.3390/v7122967

The Dual Role of Exosomes in Hepatitis A and C Virus Transmission and Viral Immune Activation

MedImmune, Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6GH, UK
Academic Editors: Yorgo Modis and Stephen Graham
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Exosomes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [534 KB, uploaded 17 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Exosomes are small nanovesicles of about 100 nm in diameter that act as intercellular messengers because they can shuttle RNA, proteins and lipids between different cells. Many studies have found that exosomes also play various roles in viral pathogenesis. Hepatitis A virus (HAV; a picornavirus) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV; a flavivirus) two single strand plus-sense RNA viruses, in particular, have been found to use exosomes for viral transmission thus evading antibody-mediated immune responses. Paradoxically, both viral exosomes can also be detected by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) leading to innate immune activation and type I interferon production. This article will review recent findings regarding these two viruses and outline how exosomes are involved in their transmission and immune sensing. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; Hepatitis C virus; Hepatitis A virus; interferon; plasmacytoid dendritic cells; innate immunity; infection; transmission; immune evasion exosomes; Hepatitis C virus; Hepatitis A virus; interferon; plasmacytoid dendritic cells; innate immunity; infection; transmission; immune evasion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Longatti, A. The Dual Role of Exosomes in Hepatitis A and C Virus Transmission and Viral Immune Activation. Viruses 2015, 7, 6707-6715.

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