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Viruses 2015, 7(12), 6387-6399; doi:10.3390/v7122945

Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

1
Nanoscience Center, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä 40014, Finland
2
MRC-Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George Belov
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 November 2015 / Published: 7 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Enterovirus Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1095 KB, uploaded 7 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Enterovirus B species (EV-B) are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1), actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC) and protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1) and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9). These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best “markers” of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication. View Full-Text
Keywords: entry; echovirus; coxsackievirus A9; coxsackievirus B3; signaling entry; echovirus; coxsackievirus A9; coxsackievirus B3; signaling
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Marjomäki, V.; Turkki, P.; Huttunen, M. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species. Viruses 2015, 7, 6387-6399.

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