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Viruses 2015, 7(11), 5643-5658; doi:10.3390/v7112897

Low Proviral Load is Associated with Indeterminate Western Blot Patterns in Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infected Individuals: Could Punctual Mutations be Related?

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Retrovirus y SIDA, UBA-CONICET, Paraguay 2155, piso 11, C1121ABG, CABA, Argentina
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Louis M. Mansky
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 13 October 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 28 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015)
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Abstract

Background: indeterminate Western blot (WB) patterns are a major concern for diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection, even in non-endemic areas. Objectives: (a) to define the prevalence of indeterminate WB among different populations from Argentina; (b) to evaluate if low proviral load (PVL) is associated with indeterminate WB profiles; and (c) to describe mutations in LTR and tax sequence of these cases. Results: Among 2031 samples, 294 were reactive by screening. Of them, 48 (16.3%) were WB indeterminate and of those 15 (31.3%) were PCR+. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to 52 HTLV-1+ samples, classified as Group 1 (G1): 25 WB+ samples from individuals with pathologies; Group 2 (G2): 18 WB+ samples from asymptomatic carriers (AC); and Group 3 (G3): 9 seroindeterminate samples from AC. Median PVL was 4.78, 2.38, and 0.15 HTLV-1 copies/100 PBMCs, respectively; a significant difference (p=0.003) was observed. Age and sex were associated with PVL in G1 and G2, respectively. Mutations in the distal and central regions of Tax Responsive Elements (TRE) 1 and 2 of G3 were observed, though not associated with PVL.The 8403A>G mutation of the distal region, previously related to high PVL, was absent in G3 but present in 50% of WB+ samples (p = 0.03). Conclusions: indeterminateWBresults confirmed later as HTLV-1 positive may be associated with low PVL levels. Mutations in LTR and tax are described; their functional relevance remains to be determined. View Full-Text
Keywords: HTLV-1/2; proviral load; Western blot; indeterminate; mutations HTLV-1/2; proviral load; Western blot; indeterminate; mutations
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cánepa, C.; Salido, J.; Ruggieri, M.; Fraile, S.; Pataccini, G.; Berini, C.; Biglione, M. Low Proviral Load is Associated with Indeterminate Western Blot Patterns in Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infected Individuals: Could Punctual Mutations be Related? Viruses 2015, 7, 5643-5658.

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