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Viruses 2015, 7(10), 5305-5318; doi:10.3390/v7102874

The Role of Electron Microscopy in Studying the Continuum of Changes in Membranous Structures during Poliovirus Infection

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 700 Albany Street, W302, Boston, MA 02118-2526, USA
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Academic Editor: David Boehr
Received: 2 July 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 September 2015 / Published: 12 October 2015
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Abstract

Replication of the poliovirus genome is localized to cytoplasmic replication factories that are fashioned out of a mixture of viral proteins, scavenged cellular components, and new components that are synthesized within the cell due to viral manipulation/up-regulation of protein and phospholipid synthesis. These membranous replication factories are quite complex, and include markers from multiple cytoplasmic cellular organelles. This review focuses on the role of electron microscopy in advancing our understanding of poliovirus RNA replication factories. Structural data from the literature provide the basis for interpreting a wide range of biochemical studies that have been published on virus-induced lipid biosynthesis. In combination, structural and biochemical experiments elucidate the dramatic membrane remodeling that is a hallmark of poliovirus infection. Temporal and spatial membrane modifications throughout the infection cycle are discussed. Early electron microscopy studies of morphological changes following viral infection are re-considered in light of more recent data on viral manipulation of lipid and protein biosynthesis. These data suggest the existence of distinct subcellular vesicle populations, each of which serves specialized roles in poliovirus replication processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: poliovirus; RNA replication; RNA virus; membrane; membrane remodeling; electron microscopy; cell morphology; replication organelle poliovirus; RNA replication; RNA virus; membrane; membrane remodeling; electron microscopy; cell morphology; replication organelle
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rossignol, E.D.; Yang, J.E.; Bullitt, E. The Role of Electron Microscopy in Studying the Continuum of Changes in Membranous Structures during Poliovirus Infection. Viruses 2015, 7, 5305-5318.

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