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Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus and Nosema ceranae Experimental Co-Infection of Winter Honey Bee Workers (Apis mellifera L.)
Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbičeva 60, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Honey Bee Breeding, Genetics and Physiology Lab, USDA-ARS, 1157 Ben Hur Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70820, USA
Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Hacquetova 17, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Maribor, Pivola 10, 2310 Hoče, Slovenia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2013; in revised form: 14 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 September 2013 / Published: 19 September 2013
Abstract: Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. Despite comprehensive research, only limited data is available from experimental infection for this virus. In the present study winter worker bees were experimentally infected in three different experiments. Bees were first inoculated per os (p/o) or per cuticle (p/c) with CBPV field strain M92/2010 in order to evaluate the virus replication in individual bees. In addition, potential synergistic effects of co-infection with CBPV and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae) on bees were investigated. In total 558 individual bees were inoculated in small cages and data were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Our results revealed successful replication of CBPV after p/o inoculation, while it was less effective when bees were inoculated p/c. Dead bees harbored about 1,000 times higher copy numbers of the virus than live bees. Co-infection of workers with CBPV and N. ceranae using either method of virus inoculation (p/c or p/o) showed increased replication ability for CBPV. In the third experiment the effect of inoculation on bee mortality was evaluated. The highest level of bee mortality was observed in a group of bees inoculated with CBPV p/o, followed by a group of workers simultaneously inoculated with CBPV and N. ceranae p/o, followed by the group inoculated with CBPV p/c and the group with only N. ceranae p/o. The experimental infection with CBPV showed important differences after p/o or p/c inoculation in winter bees, while simultaneous infection with CBPV and N. ceranae suggesting a synergistic effect after inoculation.
Keywords: Apis mellifera; experimental infection; Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV); Nosema ceranae; interaction
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Toplak, I.; Jamnikar Ciglenečki, U.; Aronstein, K.; Gregorc, A. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus and Nosema ceranae Experimental Co-Infection of Winter Honey Bee Workers (Apis mellifera L.). Viruses 2013, 5, 2282-2297.
Toplak I, Jamnikar Ciglenečki U, Aronstein K, Gregorc A. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus and Nosema ceranae Experimental Co-Infection of Winter Honey Bee Workers (Apis mellifera L.). Viruses. 2013; 5(9):2282-2297.
Toplak, Ivan; Jamnikar Ciglenečki, Urška; Aronstein, Katherine; Gregorc, Aleš. 2013. "Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus and Nosema ceranae Experimental Co-Infection of Winter Honey Bee Workers (Apis mellifera L.)." Viruses 5, no. 9: 2282-2297.