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Viruses 2013, 5(8), 2043-2061; doi:10.3390/v5082043
Review

Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction

 and *
Received: 3 June 2013; in revised form: 26 July 2013 / Accepted: 5 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Ruminant Lentiviruses)
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Abstract: Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are members of the Retrovirus family comprising the closely related Visna/Maedi Virus (VMV) and the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV), which infect sheep and goats. Both infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and cause lifelong infections. Infection by VMV and CAEV can lead to Visna/Maedi (VM) and Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) respectively, slow progressive inflammatory diseases primarily affecting the lungs, nervous system, joints and mammary glands. VM and CAE are distributed worldwide and develop over a period of months or years, always leading to the death of the host, with the consequent economic and welfare implications. Currently, the control of VM and CAE relies on the control of transmission and culling of infected animals. However, there is evidence that host genetics play an important role in determining Susceptibility/Resistance to SRLV infection and disease progression, but little work has been performed in small ruminants. More research is necessary to understand the host-SRLV interaction.
Keywords: small ruminants; lentivirus; Visna/Maedi; caprine arthritis encephalitis; host genetics small ruminants; lentivirus; Visna/Maedi; caprine arthritis encephalitis; host genetics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Larruskain, A.; Jugo, B.M. Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction. Viruses 2013, 5, 2043-2061.

AMA Style

Larruskain A, Jugo BM. Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction. Viruses. 2013; 5(8):2043-2061.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Larruskain, Amaia; Jugo, Begoña M. 2013. "Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction." Viruses 5, no. 8: 2043-2061.



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