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Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1093-1103; doi:10.3390/v4071093
Article

Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan

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 and
3,*
1 Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan 2 Honeybee Research Unit, Animal Breeding Research Group, Animal and Reproduction Division, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, 2 Ikenodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0901, Japan 3 Department of Biological Sciences, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, 111 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, Jiangsu Province 215123, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2012 / Revised: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 23 June 2012 / Published: 29 June 2012
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Abstract

Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sac brood virus (SBV), previously reported in Japan. Because of its low prevalence (5.6%) in A. mellifera colonies, the incidence of colony losses by CBPV infection must be sporadic in Japan. The presence of the (−) strand RNA in dying workers suggests that CBPV infection and replication may contribute to their symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a geographic separation of Japanese isolates from European, Uruguayan, and mainland US isolates. The lack of major exchange of honey bees between Europe/mainland US and Japan for the recent 26 years (1985–2010) may have resulted in the geographic separation of Japanese CBPV isolates.
Keywords: chronic bee paralysis virus; Apis mellifera; Apis cerana japonica; phylogeny chronic bee paralysis virus; Apis mellifera; Apis cerana japonica; phylogeny
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Morimoto, T.; Kojima, Y.; Yoshiyama, M.; Kimura, K.; Yang, B.; Kadowaki, T. Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan. Viruses 2012, 4, 1093-1103.

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