Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan
AbstractChronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sac brood virus (SBV), previously reported in Japan. Because of its low prevalence (5.6%) in A. mellifera colonies, the incidence of colony losses by CBPV infection must be sporadic in Japan. The presence of the (−) strand RNA in dying workers suggests that CBPV infection and replication may contribute to their symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a geographic separation of Japanese isolates from European, Uruguayan, and mainland US isolates. The lack of major exchange of honey bees between Europe/mainland US and Japan for the recent 26 years (1985–2010) may have resulted in the geographic separation of Japanese CBPV isolates.
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Morimoto, T.; Kojima, Y.; Yoshiyama, M.; Kimura, K.; Yang, B.; Kadowaki, T. Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan. Viruses 2012, 4, 1093-1103.
Morimoto T, Kojima Y, Yoshiyama M, Kimura K, Yang B, Kadowaki T. Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan. Viruses. 2012; 4(7):1093-1103.Chicago/Turabian Style
Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Yang, Bu; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko. 2012. "Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan." Viruses 4, no. 7: 1093-1103.