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Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1093-1103; doi:10.3390/v4071093
Article

Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan

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 and
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1 Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan 2 Honeybee Research Unit, Animal Breeding Research Group, Animal and Reproduction Division, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, 2 Ikenodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0901, Japan 3 Department of Biological Sciences, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, 111 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, Jiangsu Province 215123, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2012 / Revised: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 23 June 2012 / Published: 29 June 2012
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Abstract

Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sac brood virus (SBV), previously reported in Japan. Because of its low prevalence (5.6%) in A. mellifera colonies, the incidence of colony losses by CBPV infection must be sporadic in Japan. The presence of the (−) strand RNA in dying workers suggests that CBPV infection and replication may contribute to their symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a geographic separation of Japanese isolates from European, Uruguayan, and mainland US isolates. The lack of major exchange of honey bees between Europe/mainland US and Japan for the recent 26 years (1985–2010) may have resulted in the geographic separation of Japanese CBPV isolates.
Keywords: chronic bee paralysis virus; Apis mellifera; Apis cerana japonica; phylogeny chronic bee paralysis virus; Apis mellifera; Apis cerana japonica; phylogeny
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Morimoto, T.; Kojima, Y.; Yoshiyama, M.; Kimura, K.; Yang, B.; Kadowaki, T. Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan. Viruses 2012, 4, 1093-1103.

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