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Viruses 2012, 4(11), 2754-2765; doi:10.3390/v4112754
Article

Use of an Innovative Web-Based Laboratory Surveillance Platform to Analyze Mixed Infections Between Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and Other Respiratory Viruses Circulating in Alberta (AB), Canada (2009–2012)

1
, 2
, 3
, 4
 and 1,5,*
1 Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab), 3030 Hospital Dr. NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4W4, Canada 2 University of Alberta, Room 3-588B, ECHA, 11405 – 87 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1C9, Canada 3 Public Health Agency of Canada, 130 Colonnade Road A.L. 6501H Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9, Canada 4 Canadian Network for Public Health Intelligence, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 3R2, Canada 5 University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive Northwest, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 August 2012 / Revised: 12 October 2012 / Accepted: 26 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumoviruses and Metapneumoviruses)
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Abstract

We investigated the proportions of mono vs. mixed infections for human metapneumovirus (hMPV) as compared to adenovirus (ADV), four types of coronavirus (CRV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), RSV, and enterovirus/rhinovirus (ERV) in Alberta, Canada. Using the Data Integration for Alberta Laboratories (DIAL) platform, 26,226 respiratory specimens at ProvLab between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2012 were selected and included in the study. Using the Respiratory Virus Panel these specimens tested positive for one or more respiratory virus and negative for influenza A and B. From our subset hMPV was the fourth most common virus (n=2,561) with 373 (15%) identified as mixed infection using DIAL. Mixed infection with hMPV was most commonly found in infants less than 6 months old and ERV was most commonly found in mixed infection with hMPV (230/373, 56%) across all age groups. The proportion of mixed-infection vs. mono-infection was highest for ADV (46%), followed by CRV 229E (32%), CRV HKU1 (31%), CRV NL63 (28%), CRV OC43 (23%), PIV (20%), RSV (17%), hMPV (15%) and ERV (13%). hMPV was significantly more likely to be identified in mono infection as compared with ADV, CRV, PIV, and RSV with the exception of ERV [p < 0.05].
Keywords: hMPV; co-infection; testing; epidemiology; respiratory hMPV; co-infection; testing; epidemiology; respiratory
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Fathima, S.; Lee, B.E.; May-Hadford, J.; Mukhi, S.; Drews, S.J. Use of an Innovative Web-Based Laboratory Surveillance Platform to Analyze Mixed Infections Between Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and Other Respiratory Viruses Circulating in Alberta (AB), Canada (2009–2012). Viruses 2012, 4, 2754-2765.

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