Next Article in Journal
Immune Responses and Lassa Virus Infection
Next Article in Special Issue
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Persistence in Macrophages Alters the Profile of Cellular Gene Expression
Previous Article in Journal
Dendritic Cell Apoptosis and the Pathogenesis of Dengue
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diversity and Adaptation of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Genotypes Circulating in Two Distinct Communities: Public Hospital and Day Care Center
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 2754-2765; doi:10.3390/v4112754
Article

Use of an Innovative Web-Based Laboratory Surveillance Platform to Analyze Mixed Infections Between Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and Other Respiratory Viruses Circulating in Alberta (AB), Canada (2009–2012)

1
, 2
, 3
, 4
 and 1,5,*
Received: 30 August 2012; in revised form: 12 October 2012 / Accepted: 26 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumoviruses and Metapneumoviruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [321 KB, uploaded 22 November 2012]   |   Browse Figure
Abstract: We investigated the proportions of mono vs. mixed infections for human metapneumovirus (hMPV) as compared to adenovirus (ADV), four types of coronavirus (CRV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), RSV, and enterovirus/rhinovirus (ERV) in Alberta, Canada. Using the Data Integration for Alberta Laboratories (DIAL) platform, 26,226 respiratory specimens at ProvLab between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2012 were selected and included in the study. Using the Respiratory Virus Panel these specimens tested positive for one or more respiratory virus and negative for influenza A and B. From our subset hMPV was the fourth most common virus (n=2,561) with 373 (15%) identified as mixed infection using DIAL. Mixed infection with hMPV was most commonly found in infants less than 6 months old and ERV was most commonly found in mixed infection with hMPV (230/373, 56%) across all age groups. The proportion of mixed-infection vs. mono-infection was highest for ADV (46%), followed by CRV 229E (32%), CRV HKU1 (31%), CRV NL63 (28%), CRV OC43 (23%), PIV (20%), RSV (17%), hMPV (15%) and ERV (13%). hMPV was significantly more likely to be identified in mono infection as compared with ADV, CRV, PIV, and RSV with the exception of ERV [p < 0.05].
Keywords: hMPV; co-infection; testing; epidemiology; respiratory hMPV; co-infection; testing; epidemiology; respiratory
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Fathima, S.; Lee, B.E.; May-Hadford, J.; Mukhi, S.; Drews, S.J. Use of an Innovative Web-Based Laboratory Surveillance Platform to Analyze Mixed Infections Between Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and Other Respiratory Viruses Circulating in Alberta (AB), Canada (2009–2012). Viruses 2012, 4, 2754-2765.

AMA Style

Fathima S, Lee BE, May-Hadford J, Mukhi S, Drews SJ. Use of an Innovative Web-Based Laboratory Surveillance Platform to Analyze Mixed Infections Between Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and Other Respiratory Viruses Circulating in Alberta (AB), Canada (2009–2012). Viruses. 2012; 4(11):2754-2765.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fathima, Sumana; Lee, Bonita E.; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Mukhi, Shamir; Drews, Steven J. 2012. "Use of an Innovative Web-Based Laboratory Surveillance Platform to Analyze Mixed Infections Between Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and Other Respiratory Viruses Circulating in Alberta (AB), Canada (2009–2012)." Viruses 4, no. 11: 2754-2765.


Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert