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Viral Determinants of HIV-1 Macrophage Tropism
Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3RE, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2011; in revised form: 4 November 2011 / Accepted: 4 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Abstract: Macrophages are important target cells for HIV-1 infection that play significant roles in the maintenance of viral reservoirs and other aspects of pathogenesis. Understanding the determinants of HIV-1 tropism for macrophages will inform HIV-1 control and eradication strategies. Tropism for macrophages is both qualitative (infection or not) and quantitative (replication capacity). For example many R5 HIV-1 isolates cannot infect macrophages, but for those that can the macrophage replication capacity can vary by up to 1000-fold. Some X4 viruses are also capable of replication in macrophages, indicating that cellular tropism is partially independent of co-receptor preference. Preliminary data obtained with a small number of transmitted/founder viruses indicate inefficient macrophage infection, whereas isolates from later in disease are more frequently tropic for macrophages. Thus tropism may evolve over time, and more macrophage tropic viruses may be implicated in the pathogenesis of advanced HIV-1 infection. Compartmentalization of macrophage-tropic brain-derived envelope glycoproteins (Envs), and non-macrophage tropic non-neural tissue-derived Envs points to adaptation of HIV-1 quasi-species in distinct tissue microenvironments. Mutations within and adjacent to the Env-CD4 binding site have been identified that determine macrophage tropism at the entry level, but post-entry molecular determinants of macrophage replication capacity involving HIV-1 accessory proteins need further definition.
Keywords: macrophage; monocyte; transmitted/founder virus; tropism; HIV-1; evolution
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Duncan, C.J.A.; Sattentau, Q.J. Viral Determinants of HIV-1 Macrophage Tropism. Viruses 2011, 3, 2255-2279.
Duncan CJA, Sattentau QJ. Viral Determinants of HIV-1 Macrophage Tropism. Viruses. 2011; 3(11):2255-2279.
Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Sattentau, Quentin J. 2011. "Viral Determinants of HIV-1 Macrophage Tropism." Viruses 3, no. 11: 2255-2279.