Next Article in Journal
Hepatitis C Virus Evasion Mechanisms from Neutralizing Antibodies
Previous Article in Journal
Hepatitis C Virus Assembly Imaging
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2011, 3(11), 2255-2279; doi:10.3390/v3112255

Viral Determinants of HIV-1 Macrophage Tropism

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3RE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2011 / Revised: 4 November 2011 / Accepted: 4 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Download PDF [290 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]

Abstract

Macrophages are important target cells for HIV-1 infection that play significant roles in the maintenance of viral reservoirs and other aspects of pathogenesis. Understanding the determinants of HIV-1 tropism for macrophages will inform HIV-1 control and eradication strategies. Tropism for macrophages is both qualitative (infection or not) and quantitative (replication capacity). For example many R5 HIV-1 isolates cannot infect macrophages, but for those that can the macrophage replication capacity can vary by up to 1000-fold. Some X4 viruses are also capable of replication in macrophages, indicating that cellular tropism is partially independent of co-receptor preference. Preliminary data obtained with a small number of transmitted/founder viruses indicate inefficient macrophage infection, whereas isolates from later in disease are more frequently tropic for macrophages. Thus tropism may evolve over time, and more macrophage tropic viruses may be implicated in the pathogenesis of advanced HIV-1 infection. Compartmentalization of macrophage-tropic brain-derived envelope glycoproteins (Envs), and non-macrophage tropic non-neural tissue-derived Envs points to adaptation of HIV-1 quasi-species in distinct tissue microenvironments. Mutations within and adjacent to the Env-CD4 binding site have been identified that determine macrophage tropism at the entry level, but post-entry molecular determinants of macrophage replication capacity involving HIV-1 accessory proteins need further definition.
Keywords: macrophage; monocyte; transmitted/founder virus; tropism; HIV-1; evolution macrophage; monocyte; transmitted/founder virus; tropism; HIV-1; evolution
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Duncan, C.J.A.; Sattentau, Q.J. Viral Determinants of HIV-1 Macrophage Tropism. Viruses 2011, 3, 2255-2279.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top