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Ectromelia Virus Infections of Mice as a Model to Support the Licensure of Anti-Orthopoxvirus Therapeutics
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, MO, 63104, USA
Chimerix Inc., 2505 Meridian Park Way, Suite 340, Durham, NC, 27713, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2010; in revised form: 30 August 2010 / Accepted: 31 August 2010 / Published: 3 September 2010
Abstract: The absence of herd immunity to orthopoxviruses and the concern that variola or monkeypox viruses could be used for bioterroristic activities has stimulated the development of therapeutics and safer prophylactics. One major limitation in this process is the lack of accessible human orthopoxvirus infections for clinical efficacy trials; however, drug licensure can be based on orthopoxvirus animal challenge models as described in the “Animal Efficacy Rule”. One such challenge model uses ectromelia virus, an orthopoxvirus, whose natural host is the mouse and is the etiological agent of mousepox. The genetic similarity of ectromelia virus to variola and monkeypox viruses, the common features of the resulting disease, and the convenience of the mouse as a laboratory animal underscores its utility in the study of orthopoxvirus pathogenesis and in the development of therapeutics and prophylactics. In this review we outline how mousepox has been used as a model for smallpox. We also discuss mousepox in the context of mouse strain, route of infection, infectious dose, disease progression, and recovery from infection.
Keywords: ectromelia; variola; monkeypox; animal model; mousepox; infection route; antiviral; CMX001; ST-246
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Parker, S.; Siddiqui, A.M.; Painter, G.; Schriewer, J.; Buller, R.M. Ectromelia Virus Infections of Mice as a Model to Support the Licensure of Anti-Orthopoxvirus Therapeutics. Viruses 2010, 2, 1918-1932.
Parker S, Siddiqui AM, Painter G, Schriewer J, Buller RM. Ectromelia Virus Infections of Mice as a Model to Support the Licensure of Anti-Orthopoxvirus Therapeutics. Viruses. 2010; 2(9):1918-1932.
Parker, Scott; Siddiqui, Akbar M.; Painter, George; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R. Mark. 2010. "Ectromelia Virus Infections of Mice as a Model to Support the Licensure of Anti-Orthopoxvirus Therapeutics." Viruses 2, no. 9: 1918-1932.