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Viruses 2010, 2(12), 2696-2739; doi:10.3390/v2122696
Review

Comparison of the Mechanisms of Drug Resistance among HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C

 and *
Received: 24 October 2010; in revised form: 15 November 2010 / Accepted: 7 December 2010 / Published: 14 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Drug Resistance 2010)
Download PDF [586 KB, uploaded 14 December 2010]
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most prevalent deadly chronic viral diseases. HIV is treated by small molecule inhibitors. HBV is treated by immunomodulation and small molecule inhibitors. HCV is currently treated primarily by immunomodulation but many small molecules are in clinical development. Although HIV is a retrovirus, HBV is a double-stranded DNA virus, and HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus, antiviral drug resistance complicates the development of drugs and the successful treatment of each of these viruses. Although their replication cycles, therapeutic targets, and evolutionary mechanisms are different, the fundamental approaches to identifying and characterizing HIV, HBV, and HCV drug resistance are similar. This review describes the evolution of HIV, HBV, and HCV within individuals and populations and the genetic mechanisms associated with drug resistance to each of the antiviral drug classes used for their treatment.
Keywords: HIV; HBV; HCV; antiviral therapy; drug resistance; evolution; quasispecies HIV; HBV; HCV; antiviral therapy; drug resistance; evolution; quasispecies
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Margeridon-Thermet, S.; Shafer, R.W. Comparison of the Mechanisms of Drug Resistance among HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. Viruses 2010, 2, 2696-2739.

AMA Style

Margeridon-Thermet S, Shafer RW. Comparison of the Mechanisms of Drug Resistance among HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. Viruses. 2010; 2(12):2696-2739.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Margeridon-Thermet, Severine; Shafer, Robert W. 2010. "Comparison of the Mechanisms of Drug Resistance among HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C." Viruses 2, no. 12: 2696-2739.



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