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Viruses 2018, 10(9), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090475

Host Shutoff in Influenza A Virus: Many Means to an End

1
Graduate Program in Molecular Microbiology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
2
Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA 02111, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What’s New with Flu?)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1048 KB, uploaded 5 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Influenza A virus carries few of its own proteins, but uses them effectively to take control of the infected cells and avoid immune responses. Over the years, host shutoff, the widespread down-regulation of host gene expression, has emerged as a key process that contributes to cellular takeover in infected cells. Interestingly, multiple mechanisms of host shutoff have been described in influenza A virus, involving changes in translation, RNA synthesis and stability. Several viral proteins, notably the non-structural protein NS1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the endoribonuclease PA-X have been implicated in host shutoff. This multitude of host shutoff mechanisms indicates that host shutoff is an important component of the influenza A virus replication cycle. Here we review the various mechanisms of host shutoff in influenza A virus and the evidence that they contribute to immune evasion and/or viral replication. We also discuss what the purpose of having multiple mechanisms may be. View Full-Text
Keywords: host shutoff; PA-X; NS1; RNA-directed RNA polymerase; immune evasion; influenza host shutoff; PA-X; NS1; RNA-directed RNA polymerase; immune evasion; influenza
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Levene, R.E.; Gaglia, M.M. Host Shutoff in Influenza A Virus: Many Means to an End. Viruses 2018, 10, 475.

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