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Viruses 2018, 10(9), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090467

S1 Subunit of Spike Protein from a Current Highly Virulent Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Is an Important Determinant of Virulence in Piglets

1
Division of Viral Disease and Epidemiology, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agricultural Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050856, Japan
2
Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 5650871, Japan
3
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Base on the sequence of S genes, which encode spike proteins, we previously identified three different types (North American, S INDEL, and S large-DEL types) of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) that have re-emerged in Japan since 2013. Based on experimental infections with the North American and S large-DEL types, we also hypothesized that PEDV virulence may be linked to the S1 subunit of the S protein. To test this hypothesis, we have now assayed in gnotobiotic piglets various recombinant PEDVs generated by reverse genetics. Piglets inoculated with CV777 maintained in National Institute of Animal Health, along with piglets infected with a recombinant form of the same virus, developed subclinical to mild diarrhea. In contrast, severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, astasia, and high mortality were observed in piglets inoculated with recombinant strains in which the S gene was partially or fully replaced with corresponding sequences from the highly virulent Japanese PEDV isolate OKN-1/JPN/2013. Indeed, symptoms resembled those in piglets inoculated with the OKN-1/JPN/2013, and were especially pronounced in younger piglets. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the S1 subunit of the S protein is an important determinant of PEDV virulence, and advance development of new vaccine candidate. View Full-Text
Keywords: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; coronavirus; spike protein; virulence; gnotobiotic piglets; reverse genetics porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; coronavirus; spike protein; virulence; gnotobiotic piglets; reverse genetics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Suzuki, T.; Terada, Y.; Enjuanes, L.; Ohashi, S.; Kamitani, W. S1 Subunit of Spike Protein from a Current Highly Virulent Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Is an Important Determinant of Virulence in Piglets. Viruses 2018, 10, 467.

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