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Viruses 2018, 10(8), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080440

The Diverse Roles of microRNAs at the Host–Virus Interface

1
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3G 1Y6, Canada
2
Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3G 1Y6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CSV2018: The 2nd symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV))
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Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Through this activity, they are implicated in almost every cellular process investigated to date. Hence, it is not surprising that miRNAs play diverse roles in regulation of viral infections and antiviral responses. Diverse families of DNA and RNA viruses have been shown to take advantage of cellular miRNAs or produce virally encoded miRNAs that alter host or viral gene expression. MiRNA-mediated changes in gene expression have been demonstrated to modulate viral replication, antiviral immune responses, viral latency, and pathogenesis. Interestingly, viruses mediate both canonical and non-canonical interactions with miRNAs to downregulate specific targets or to promote viral genome stability, translation, and/or RNA accumulation. In this review, we focus on recent findings elucidating several key mechanisms employed by diverse virus families, with a focus on miRNAs at the host–virus interface during herpesvirus, polyomavirus, retroviruses, pestivirus, and hepacivirus infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNAs; Herpesviruses; polyomaviruses; retroviruses; pestiviruses; hepaciviruses; latency; immune evasion; viral RNA accumulation microRNAs; Herpesviruses; polyomaviruses; retroviruses; pestiviruses; hepaciviruses; latency; immune evasion; viral RNA accumulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Bernier, A.; Sagan, S.M. The Diverse Roles of microRNAs at the Host–Virus Interface. Viruses 2018, 10, 440.

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