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Viruses 2018, 10(8), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080393

Induction of Oxidative DNA Damage in Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Infected Bovine Kidney Cells (MDBK Cells) and Human Tumor Cells (A549 Cells and U2OS Cells)

1,2,†,* , 1,2,†
,
1,2
,
1,2
and
2,3,4,*
1
College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
2
Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, China
3
Key Laboratory for Animal Immunology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, China
4
College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450000, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle that causes lesions in mucosal surfaces, genital tracts and nervous systems. As a novel oncolytic virus, BoHV-1 infects and kills numerous human tumor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the virus-induced cell damages are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that virus infection of MDBK cells induced high levels of DNA damage, because the percentage of comet tail DNA (tailDNA%) determined by comet assay, a direct indicator of DNA damage, and the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-oxoG) production, an oxidative DNA damage marker, consistently increased following the virus infection. The expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG-1), an enzyme responsible for the excision of 8-oxoG, was significantly decreased due to the virus infection, which corroborated with the finding that BoHV-1 infection stimulated 8-oxoG production. Furthermore, the virus replication in human tumor cells such as in A549 cells and U2OS cells also induced DNA damage. Chemical inhibition of reactive oxidative species (ROS) production by either ROS scavenger N-Acetyl-l-cysteine or NOX inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) significantly decreased the levels of tailDNA%, suggesting the involvement of ROS in the virus induced DNA lesions. Collectively, these results indicated that BoHV-1 infection of these cells elicits oxidative DNA damages, providing a perspective in understanding the mechanisms by which the virus induces cell death in both native host cells and human tumor cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: BoHV-1; DNA damage; OGG-1; ROS; comet assay; tumor BoHV-1; DNA damage; OGG-1; ROS; comet assay; tumor
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Zhu, L.; Fu, X.; Yuan, C.; Jiang, X.; Zhang, G. Induction of Oxidative DNA Damage in Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Infected Bovine Kidney Cells (MDBK Cells) and Human Tumor Cells (A549 Cells and U2OS Cells). Viruses 2018, 10, 393.

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