Next Article in Journal
A CRISPR-Cas9-Based Toolkit for Fast and Precise In Vivo Genetic Engineering of Bacillus subtilis Phages
Previous Article in Journal
Upregulation of the Chemokine Receptor CCR2B in Epstein‒Barr Virus-Positive Burkitt Lymphoma Cell Lines with the Latency III Program
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050240

Complete Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of a Novel Bacillus subtilis-Infecting Bacteriophage BSP10 and Its Effect on Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid Degradation

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3597 KB, uploaded 4 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

While the harmful effects of lactic acid bacterial bacteriophages in the dairy industry are well-established, the importance of Bacillus subtilis-infecting bacteriophages on soybean fermentation is poorly-studied. In this study, we isolated a B. subtilis-infecting bacteriophage BSP10 from Meju (a brick of dried fermented soybean) and further characterized it. This Myoviridae family bacteriophage exhibited a narrow host range against B. subtilis strains (17/52, 32.7%). The genome of bacteriophage BSP10 is 153,767 bp long with 236 open reading frames and 5 tRNAs. Comparative genomics (using dot plot, progressiveMauve alignment, heat-plot, and BLASTN) and phylogenetic analysis strongly suggest its incorporation as a new species in the Nit1virus genus. Furthermore, bacteriophage BSP10 was efficient in the growth inhibition of B. subtilis ATCC 15245 in liquid culture and in Cheonggukjang (a soybean fermented food) fermentation. Artificial contamination of as low as 102 PFU/g of bacteriophage BSP10 during Cheonggukjang fermentation significantly reduced bacterial numbers by up to 112 fold in comparison to the control (no bacteriophage). Moreover, for the first time, we experimentally proved that B. subtilis-infecting bacteriophage greatly enhanced poly-γ-glutamic acid degradation during soybean fermentation, which is likely to negatively affect the functionalities of Cheonggukjang. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; soybean-based fermented foods; complete genome sequence; Nit1virus; PGA hydrolase Bacillus subtilis; soybean-based fermented foods; complete genome sequence; Nit1virus; PGA hydrolase
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ghosh, K.; Senevirathne, A.; Kang, H.S.; Hyun, W.B.; Kim, J.E.; Kim, K.-P. Complete Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of a Novel Bacillus subtilis-Infecting Bacteriophage BSP10 and Its Effect on Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid Degradation. Viruses 2018, 10, 240.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top