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Viruses 2018, 10(5), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050232

Involvement of Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages in Liver Pathology of Pirital Virus-Infected Syrian Hamsters

1
Arthropod-Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
2
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

New World arenaviruses cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in South America. Pirital virus (PIRV), a mammarenavirus hosted by Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni), causes a disease in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (biosafety level-3, BSL-3) that has many pathologic similarities to the South American hemorrhagic fevers (BSL-4) and, thus, is considered among the best small-animal models for human arenavirus disease. Here, we extend in greater detail previously described clinical and pathological findings in Syrian hamsters and provide evidence for a pro-inflammatory macrophage response during PIRV infection. The liver was the principal target organ of the disease, and signs of Kupffer cell involvement were identified in mortally infected hamster histopathology data. Differential expression analysis of liver mRNA revealed signatures of the pro-inflammatory response, hematologic dysregulation, interferon pathway and other host response pathways, including 17 key transcripts that were also reported in two non-human primate (NHP) arenavirus liver-infection models, representing both Old and New World mammarenavirus infections. Although antigen presentation may differ among rodent and NHP species, key hemostatic and innate immune-response components showed expression parallels. Signatures of pro-inflammatory macrophage involvement in PIRV-infected livers included enrichment of Ifng, Nfkb2, Stat1, Irf1, Klf6, Il1b, Cxcl10, and Cxcl11 transcripts. Together, these data indicate that pro-inflammatory macrophage M1 responses likely contribute to the pathogenesis of acute PIRV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: arenavirus pathogenesis; Syrian hamster; transcriptome profiling; hematology; host response arenavirus pathogenesis; Syrian hamster; transcriptome profiling; hematology; host response
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Campbell, C.L.; Phillips, A.T.; Rico, A.; McGuire, A.; Aboellail, T.A.; Quackenbush, S.; Olson, K.E.; Schountz, T. Involvement of Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages in Liver Pathology of Pirital Virus-Infected Syrian Hamsters. Viruses 2018, 10, 232.

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