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Viruses 2018, 10(3), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10030124

Stem Cell-Derived Models of Viral Infections in the Gastrointestinal Tract

1
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA
3
Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses–Bacteria Interactions in the Gut)
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Abstract

Studies on the intestinal epithelial response to viral infection have previously been limited by the absence of in vitro human intestinal models that recapitulate the multicellular complexity of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent technological advances have led to the development of “mini-intestine” models, which mimic the diverse cellular nature and physiological activity of the small intestine. Utilizing adult or embryonic intestinal tissue, enteroid and organoid systems, respectively, represent an opportunity to effectively model cellular differentiation, proliferation, and interactions that are specific to the specialized environment of the intestine. Enteroid and organoid systems represent a significant advantage over traditional in vitro methods because they model the structure and function of the small intestine while also maintaining the genetic identity of the host. These more physiologic models also allow for novel approaches to investigate the interaction of enteric viruses with the gastrointestinal tract, making them ideal to study the complexities of host-pathogen interactions in this unique cellular environment. This review aims to provide a summary on the use of human enteroid and organoid systems as models to study virus pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: enteroids; organoids; intestinal stem cells; mini-guts; enteroviruses enteroids; organoids; intestinal stem cells; mini-guts; enteroviruses
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Lanik, W.E.; Mara, M.A.; Mihi, B.; Coyne, C.B.; Good, M. Stem Cell-Derived Models of Viral Infections in the Gastrointestinal Tract. Viruses 2018, 10, 124.

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