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Viruses 2018, 10(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10030111

Loss of Actin-Based Motility Impairs Ectromelia Virus Release In Vitro but Is Not Critical to Spread In Vivo

1
School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
2
School of Medicine, College of Health and Medicine, The University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7005, Australia
3
The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoskeleton in Virus Infections)
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Abstract

Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus and the causative agent of mousepox. Like other poxviruses such as variola virus (agent of smallpox), monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (the live vaccine for smallpox), ECTV promotes actin-nucleation at the surface of infected cells during virus release. Homologs of the viral protein A36 mediate this function through phosphorylation of one or two tyrosine residues that ultimately recruit the cellular Arp2/3 actin-nucleating complex. A36 also functions in the intracellular trafficking of virus mediated by kinesin-1. Here, we describe the generation of a recombinant ECTV that is specifically disrupted in actin-based motility allowing us to examine the role of this transport step in vivo for the first time. We show that actin-based motility has a critical role in promoting the release of virus from infected cells in vitro but plays a minor role in virus spread in vivo. It is likely that loss of microtubule-dependent transport is a major factor for the attenuation observed when A36R is deleted. View Full-Text
Keywords: actin-based motility; viral release; A36; Arp2/3 complex; virus transport actin-based motility; viral release; A36; Arp2/3 complex; virus transport
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Duncan, M.L.; Horsington, J.; Eldi, P.; Al Rumaih, Z.; Karupiah, G.; Newsome, T.P. Loss of Actin-Based Motility Impairs Ectromelia Virus Release In Vitro but Is Not Critical to Spread In Vivo. Viruses 2018, 10, 111.

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