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Viruses 2018, 10(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10030108

The Oncolytic Virus VSV-GP Is Effective against Malignant Melanoma

1
Division of Virology, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Viral Immunotherapy of Cancer, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
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Abstract

Previously, we described VSV-GP, a modified version of the vesicular stomatitis virus, as a non-neurotoxic oncolytic virus that is effective for the treatment of malignant glioblastoma and ovarian cancer. Here, we evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of VSV-GP for malignant melanoma. All of the human, mouse, and canine melanoma cell lines that were tested, alongside most primary human melanoma cultures, were infected by VSV-GP and efficiently killed. Additionally, we found that VSV-GP prolonged the survival of mice in both a xenograft and a syngeneic mouse model. However, only a few mice survived with long-term tumor remission. When we analyzed the factors that might limit VSV-GP’s efficacy, we found that vector-neutralizing antibodies did not play a role in this context, as even after eight subsequent immunizations and an observation time of 42 weeks, no vector-neutralizing antibodies were induced in VSV-GP immunized mice. In contrast, the type I IFN response might have contributed to the reduced efficacy of the therapy, as both of the cell lines that were used for the mouse models were able to mount a protective IFN response. Nevertheless, early treatment with VSV-GP also reduced the number and size of lung metastases in a syngeneic B16 mouse model. In summary, VSV-GP is a potent candidate for the treatment of malignant melanoma; however, factors limiting the efficacy of the virus need to be further explored. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncolytic virus; melanoma; vesicular stomatitis virus; VSV-GP oncolytic virus; melanoma; vesicular stomatitis virus; VSV-GP
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Kimpel, J.; Urbiola, C.; Koske, I.; Tober, R.; Banki, Z.; Wollmann, G.; von Laer, D. The Oncolytic Virus VSV-GP Is Effective against Malignant Melanoma. Viruses 2018, 10, 108.

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