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Viruses 2018, 10(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10030105

The Enigmatic Alphavirus Non-Structural Protein 3 (nsP3) Revealing Its Secrets at Last

Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
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Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alphavirus Research)
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Abstract

Alphaviruses encode 4 non-structural proteins (nsPs), most of which have well-understood functions in capping and membrane association (nsP1), polyprotein processing and RNA helicase activity (nsP2) and as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsP4). The function of nsP3 has been more difficult to pin down and it has long been referred to as the more enigmatic of the nsPs. The protein comprises three domains, an N-terminal macro domain, a central zinc-binding domain and a C-terminal hypervariable domain (HVD). In this article, we review old and new literature about the functions of the three domains. Much progress in recent years has contributed to a picture of nsP3, particularly through its HVD as a hub for interactions with host cell molecules, with multiple effects on the biology of the host cell at early points in infection. These and many future discoveries will provide targets for anti-viral therapies as well as strategies for modification of vectors for vaccine and oncolytic interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: alphavirus; hypervariable domain; host-pathogen interaction; macro domain; polyprotein processing; replicase; replication complex alphavirus; hypervariable domain; host-pathogen interaction; macro domain; polyprotein processing; replicase; replication complex
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Götte, B.; Liu, L.; McInerney, G.M. The Enigmatic Alphavirus Non-Structural Protein 3 (nsP3) Revealing Its Secrets at Last. Viruses 2018, 10, 105.

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