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Viruses 2018, 10(2), 79; doi:10.3390/v10020079

Cytoskeletons in the Closet—Subversion in Alphaherpesvirus Infections

1
Centre for Virus Research, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoskeleton in Virus Infections)
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Abstract

Actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments form the cytoskeleton of vertebrate cells. Involved in maintaining cell integrity and structure, facilitating cargo and vesicle transport, remodelling surface structures and motility, the cytoskeleton is necessary for the successful life of a cell. Because of the broad range of functions these filaments are involved in, they are common targets for viral pathogens, including the alphaherpesviruses. Human-tropic alphaherpesviruses are prevalent pathogens carried by more than half of the world’s population; comprising herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2) and varicella-zoster virus, these viruses are characterised by their ability to establish latency in sensory neurons. This review will discuss the known mechanisms involved in subversion of and transport via the cytoskeleton during alphaherpesvirus infections, focusing on protein-protein interactions and pathways that have recently been identified. Studies on related alphaherpesviruses whose primary host is not human, along with comparisons to more distantly related beta and gammaherpesviruses, are also presented in this review. The need to decipher as-yet-unknown mechanisms exploited by viruses to hijack cytoskeletal components—to reveal the hidden cytoskeletons in the closet—will also be addressed. View Full-Text
Keywords: alphaherpesvirus; cytoskeleton; actin; microtubules; intermediate filaments; herpes simplex virus; virus transport alphaherpesvirus; cytoskeleton; actin; microtubules; intermediate filaments; herpes simplex virus; virus transport
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Denes, C.E.; Miranda-Saksena, M.; Cunningham, A.L.; Diefenbach, R.J. Cytoskeletons in the Closet—Subversion in Alphaherpesvirus Infections. Viruses 2018, 10, 79.

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