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Viruses 2018, 10(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020063

All-Round Manipulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton by HIV

The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
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Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoskeleton in Virus Infections)
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Abstract

While significant progress has been made in terms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy, treatment does not represent a cure and remains inaccessible to many people living with HIV. Continued mechanistic research into the viral life cycle and its intersection with many aspects of cellular biology are not only fundamental in the continued fight against HIV, but also provide many key observations of the workings of our immune system. Decades of HIV research have testified to the integral role of the actin cytoskeleton in both establishing and spreading the infection. Here, we review how the virus uses different strategies to manipulate cellular actin networks and increase the efficiency of various stages of its life cycle. While some HIV proteins seem able to bind to actin filaments directly, subversion of the cytoskeleton occurs indirectly by exploiting the power of actin regulatory proteins, which are corrupted at multiple levels. Furthermore, this manipulation is not restricted to a discrete class of proteins, but rather extends throughout all layers of the cytoskeleton. We discuss prominent examples of actin regulators that are exploited, neutralized or hijacked by the virus, and address how their coordinated deregulation can lead to changes in cellular behavior that promote viral spreading. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; actin; cytoskeleton; manipulation; inbound; outbound; virus; cell-cell transfer; virological synapse; Rho-GTPases HIV; actin; cytoskeleton; manipulation; inbound; outbound; virus; cell-cell transfer; virological synapse; Rho-GTPases
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Ospina Stella, A.; Turville, S. All-Round Manipulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton by HIV. Viruses 2018, 10, 63.

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