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Viruses 2018, 10(1), 19; doi:10.3390/v10010019

Interactions between Enteric Bacteria and Eukaryotic Viruses Impact the Outcome of Infection

1
Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
2
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses–Bacteria Interactions in the Gut)
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Abstract

Enteric viruses encounter a multitude of environments as they traverse the gastrointestinal tract. The interaction of enteric eukaryotic viruses with members of the host microbiota impacts the outcome of infection. Infection with several enteric viruses is impaired in the absence of the gut microbiota, specifically bacteria. The effects of bacteria on virus biology are diverse. Poliovirus capsid stability and receptor engagement are positively impacted by bacteria and bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Norovirus utilizes histo-blood group antigens produced by enteric bacteria to attach and productively infect B cells. Lipopolysaccharides on the envelope of mouse mammary tumor virus promote a tolerogenic environment that allows for the establishment of viral persistence. Reovirus binds Gram negative and Gram-positive bacteria through bacterial envelope components to enhance virion thermostability. Through the direct engagement of bacteria and bacterial components, viruses evolved diverse ways to impact the outcome of infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus; bacteria; intestines; microbiota; poliovirus; norovirus; mouse mammary tumor virus; reovirus; virus and host interactions virus; bacteria; intestines; microbiota; poliovirus; norovirus; mouse mammary tumor virus; reovirus; virus and host interactions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Berger, A.K.; Mainou, B.A. Interactions between Enteric Bacteria and Eukaryotic Viruses Impact the Outcome of Infection. Viruses 2018, 10, 19.

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