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Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays
Department of Pediatric, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-7616, USA
Children’s Research Institute, Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 1997, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1997, USA
Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 1997, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1997, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2009; in revised form: 22 September 2009 / Accepted: 20 October 2009 / Published: 20 October 2009
Abstract: Assays to simultaneously detect multiple potential agents of bioterrorism are limited. Two multiplex PCR and RT-PCR enzyme hybridization assays (mPCR-EHA, mRT-PCR-EHA) were developed to simultaneously detect many of the CDC category “A” bioterrorism agents. The “Bio T” DNA assay was developed to detect: Variola major (VM), Bacillus anthracis (BA), Yersinia pestis (YP), Francisella tularensis (FT) and Varicella zoster virus (VZV). The “Bio T” RNA assay (mRT-PCR-EHA) was developed to detect: Ebola virus (Ebola), Lassa fever virus (Lassa), Rift Valley fever (RVF), Hantavirus Sin Nombre species (HSN) and dengue virus (serotypes 1-4). Sensitivity and specificity of the 2 assays were tested by using genomic DNA, recombinant plasmid positive controls, RNA transcripts controls, surrogate (spiked) clinical samples and common respiratory pathogens. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD)) of the DNA asssay for genomic DNA was 1×100~1×102 copies/mL for BA, FT and YP. The LOD for VZV whole organism was 1×10-2 TCID50/mL. The LOD for recombinant controls ranged from 1×102~1×103copies/mL for BA, FT, YP and VM. The RNA assay demonstrated LOD for RNA transcript controls of 1×104~1×106 copies/mL without extraction and 1×105~1×106 copies/mL with extraction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. The LOD for dengue whole organisms was ~1×10-4 dilution for dengue 1 and 2, 1×104 LD50/mL and 1×102 LD50/mL for dengue 3 and 4. The LOD without extraction for recombinant plasmid DNA controls was ~1×103 copies/mL (1.5 input copies/reaction) for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. No cross-reactivity of primers and probes used in both assays was detected with common respiratory pathogens or between targeted analytes. Clinical sensitivity was estimated using 264 surrogate clinical samples tested with the BioT DNA assay and 549 samples tested with the BioT RNA assay. The clinical specificity is 99.6% and 99.8% for BioT DNA assay and BioT RNA assay, respectively. The surrogate sensitivities of these two assays were 100% (95%CI 83-100) for FT, BA (pX02), YP, VM, VZV, dengue 2,3,4 and 95% (95%CI 75-100) for BA (pX01) and dengue 1 using spiked clinical specimens. The specificity of both BioT multiplex assays on spiked specimens was 100% (95% CI 99-100). Compared to other available assays (culture, serology, PCR, etc.) both the BioT DNA mPCR-EHA and BioT RNA mRT-PCR-EHA are rapid, sensitive and specific assays for detecting many category “A” Bioterrorism agents using a standard thermocycler.
Keywords: Multiplex PCR; simultaneous detection; Variola major; Bacillus anthracis; Yersinia pestis; Francisella tularensis; Ebola virus; Lassa fever virus; Rift Valley Fever virus; Hantavirus; dengue virus
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He, J.; Kraft, A.J.; Fan, J.; Van Dyke, M.; Wang, L.; Bose, M.E.; Khanna, M.; Metallo, J.A.; Henrickson, K.J. Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays. Viruses 2009, 1, 441-459.
He J, Kraft AJ, Fan J, Van Dyke M, Wang L, Bose ME, Khanna M, Metallo JA, Henrickson KJ. Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays. Viruses. 2009; 1(3):441-459.
He, Jie; Kraft, Andrea J.; Fan, Jiang; Van Dyke, Meredith; Wang, Lihua; Bose, Michael E.; Khanna, Marilyn; Metallo, Jacob A.; Henrickson, Kelly J. 2009. "Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays." Viruses 1, no. 3: 441-459.