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Forests 2017, 8(8), 280; doi:10.3390/f8080280

Warning Signals of Adverse Interactions between Climate Change and Native Stressors in British Columbia Forests

Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, Skeena Region, Bag 6000, Smithers, BC V0J 2N0, Canada
FORCOMP Forestry Consulting Ltd., A-827 Queens Avenue, Victoria, BC V8T 4V8, Canada
BC Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resource Operations 5th Floor, 499 George St., Prince George, BC V2L 1R5, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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We examine the direct effects of multiple disturbance agents on individual tree development and stand productivity in 15–40-year-old managed forests in British Columbia, Canada. Our primary interest was to establish a baseline assessment of damage in these forests and, especially, to focus on the degree to which biotic and abiotic stressors cause physical damage and diffuse mortality. Based on extensive climate data for the study area and the ecology of the disturbance agents we explore possible interactions between individual stressors and climate. Mean annual temperature increased by over 1 °C in the last century and annual precipitation increased by 8%, with that in the summer increasing by 18%. Disturbance agents were a central driver of mortality, growth and physical damage and their combined impact in lodgepole pine stands was as much as four times greater than expected particularly in the dominant trees most counted upon for stand productivity and timber supply. Climate-mediated disturbances accounted for five of the top six damage agent categories in terms of percent of basal area impacted but the lack of long-term disturbance monitoring data, a global information gap, limits our ability to conclusively link high damage rates to climatic changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; forest disturbances and damage; forest productivity; uncertainty climate change; forest disturbances and damage; forest productivity; uncertainty

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Woods, A.J.; Coates, K.D.; Watts, M.; Foord, V.; Holtzman, E.I. Warning Signals of Adverse Interactions between Climate Change and Native Stressors in British Columbia Forests. Forests 2017, 8, 280.

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