Next Article in Journal
Characterizing Forest Succession Stages for Wildlife Habitat Assessment Using Multispectral Airborne Imagery
Previous Article in Journal
Modeled Shifts in Polylepis Species Ranges in the Andes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Present
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2017, 8(7), 235; doi:10.3390/f8070235

Distribution and Characterization of Armillaria Complex in Atlantic Forest Ecosystems of Spain

Production and Plant Protection, Neiker Tecnalia, Apartado 46, Vitoria Gasteiz 01080, Spain
Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6800 KB, uploaded 4 July 2017]   |  


Armillaria root disease is a significant forest health concern in the Atlantic forest ecosystems in Spain. The damage occurs in conifers and hardwoods, causing especially high mortality in young trees in both native forests and plantations. In the present study, the distribution of Armillaria root disease in the forests and plantations of the Basque Country is reported. Armillaria spp. were more frequently isolated from stands with slopes of 20–30% and west orientation, acid soils with high permeability, deciduous hosts, and a rainfall average above 1800 mm. In a large-scale survey, 35% of the stands presented Armillaria structures and showed disease symptoms. Of the isolated Armillaria samples, 60% were identified using molecular methods as A. ostoyae, 24% as A. mellea, 14% as A. gallica, 1% as A. tabescens, and 1% as A. cepistipes. In a small scale sampling, population diversity was defined by somatic compatibility tests and Universally Primed-PCR technique. Finally, the pathogenicity of A. mellea, the species with the broadest host range, was determined on different tree species present in the Atlantic area of Spain in order to determine their resistance levels to Armillaria disease. A significant difference in disease severity was observed among tree species (p < 0.001), with Pinus radiata being the most susceptible tree species and Cryptomeria japonica the most resistant to A. mellea. View Full-Text
Keywords: Armillaria spp.; distribution; diversity; environmental factors; host susceptibility; UP-PCR Armillaria spp.; distribution; diversity; environmental factors; host susceptibility; UP-PCR

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mesanza, N.; Patten, C.L.; Iturritxa, E. Distribution and Characterization of Armillaria Complex in Atlantic Forest Ecosystems of Spain. Forests 2017, 8, 235.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top