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Forests 2017, 8(7), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070235

Distribution and Characterization of Armillaria Complex in Atlantic Forest Ecosystems of Spain

1
Production and Plant Protection, Neiker Tecnalia, Apartado 46, Vitoria Gasteiz 01080, Spain
2
Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract

Armillaria root disease is a significant forest health concern in the Atlantic forest ecosystems in Spain. The damage occurs in conifers and hardwoods, causing especially high mortality in young trees in both native forests and plantations. In the present study, the distribution of Armillaria root disease in the forests and plantations of the Basque Country is reported. Armillaria spp. were more frequently isolated from stands with slopes of 20–30% and west orientation, acid soils with high permeability, deciduous hosts, and a rainfall average above 1800 mm. In a large-scale survey, 35% of the stands presented Armillaria structures and showed disease symptoms. Of the isolated Armillaria samples, 60% were identified using molecular methods as A. ostoyae, 24% as A. mellea, 14% as A. gallica, 1% as A. tabescens, and 1% as A. cepistipes. In a small scale sampling, population diversity was defined by somatic compatibility tests and Universally Primed-PCR technique. Finally, the pathogenicity of A. mellea, the species with the broadest host range, was determined on different tree species present in the Atlantic area of Spain in order to determine their resistance levels to Armillaria disease. A significant difference in disease severity was observed among tree species (p < 0.001), with Pinus radiata being the most susceptible tree species and Cryptomeria japonica the most resistant to A. mellea. View Full-Text
Keywords: Armillaria spp.; distribution; diversity; environmental factors; host susceptibility; UP-PCR Armillaria spp.; distribution; diversity; environmental factors; host susceptibility; UP-PCR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Mesanza, N.; Patten, C.L.; Iturritxa, E. Distribution and Characterization of Armillaria Complex in Atlantic Forest Ecosystems of Spain. Forests 2017, 8, 235.

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