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Forests 2017, 8(12), 497; doi:10.3390/f8120497

Mortality and Recovery of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in Response to Winter Temperatures and Predictions for the Future

1
Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Quebec, QC G1A 1C5, Canada
3
USDA, Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, Forest Health Protection, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
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Abstract

Eastern (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlocks (T. caroliniana) of eastern North America have been attacked by the non-native hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (HWA) since the first half of the 20th century. Unlike most insects, HWA develops through one generation from fall to late winter, exposing this insect to the lethal effects of winter temperatures. The mortality inflicted by winter temperatures on HWA determines the surviving population density as well as its ability to spread to uninfested areas. With the ongoing changes in climate, knowledge of this species’ ability to survive and spread in the future can help land managers prepare for its management. This study began during the winter of 2014 and ended in the spring of 2017. During this period, winter mortality of HWA was recorded at 100 sites from Maine to Georgia (n = 209). Changes in population density from the sistens to the succeeding progrediens generation were recorded at 24 sites (n = 35). Models were developed to predict HWA mortality using the lowest minimum temperature prior to the mortality assessment date, the number of days with mean temperature <−1 °C, and the mean daily temperature of the three days preceding that minimum. Models were also developed to predict population density changes from the overwintering sistens generation to the following progrediens generation. Future projections under climate change showed increases in winter survival and population growth rates over time. Especially towards the northeastern edge of T. canadensis’ distribution as minimum temperatures are predicted to increase at a greater rate. This will result in an increase in density throughout its current distribution and expansion northward causing an increase in its impact on eastern Tsuga spp. View Full-Text
Keywords: Adelges tsugae; climate change; eastern hemlock; forest insect; minimum temperature; Tsuga canadensis; winter mortality Adelges tsugae; climate change; eastern hemlock; forest insect; minimum temperature; Tsuga canadensis; winter mortality
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

McAvoy, T.J.; Régnière, J.; St-Amant, R.; Schneeberger, N.F.; Salom, S.M. Mortality and Recovery of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in Response to Winter Temperatures and Predictions for the Future. Forests 2017, 8, 497.

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