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Forests 2017, 8(11), 422; doi:10.3390/f8110422

Differences in Human versus Lightning Fires between Urban and Rural Areas of the Boreal Forest in Interior Alaska

1
Soka University of America, 1 University Dr, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656, USA
2
U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract

In western North America, the carbon-rich boreal forest is experiencing warmer temperatures, drier conditions and larger and more frequent wildfires. However, the fire regime is also affected by direct human activities through suppression, ignition, and land use changes. Models are important predictive tools for understanding future conditions but they are based on regional generalizations of wildfire behavior and weather that do not adequately account for the complexity of human–fire interactions. To achieve a better understanding of the intensity of human influence on fires in this sparsely populated area and to quantify differences between human and lightning fires, we analyzed fires by both ignition types in regard to human proximity in urban (the Fairbanks subregion) and rural areas of interior Alaska using spatial (Geographic Information Systems) and quantitative analysis methods. We found substantial differences in drivers of wildfire: while increases in fire ignitions and area burned were caused by lightning in rural interior Alaska, in the Fairbanks subregion these increases were due to human fires, especially in the wildland urban interface. Lightning fires are starting earlier and fires are burning longer, which is much more pronounced in the Fairbanks subregion than in rural areas. Human fires differed from lightning fires in several ways: they started closer to settlements and highways, burned for a shorter duration, were concentrated in the Fairbanks subregion, and often occurred outside the brief seasonal window for lightning fires. This study provides important insights that improve our understanding of the direct human influence on recently observed changes in wildfire regime with implications for both fire modeling and fire management. View Full-Text
Keywords: wildfire; climate change; fire regime; boreal forest; human influence; GIS wildfire; climate change; fire regime; boreal forest; human influence; GIS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Calef, M.P.; Varvak, A.; McGuire, A.D. Differences in Human versus Lightning Fires between Urban and Rural Areas of the Boreal Forest in Interior Alaska. Forests 2017, 8, 422.

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