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Forests 2017, 8(10), 380; doi:10.3390/f8100380

Acoustic-Based Non-Destructive Estimation of Wood Quality Attributes within Standing Red Pine Trees

Canadian Wood Fibre Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, Sault Ste. Marie, P6A 2E5 ON, Canada
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Inventory, Quantitative Methods and Remote Sensing)
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Abstract

The relationship between acoustic velocity (vd) and the dynamic modulus of elasticity (me), wood density (wd), microfibril angle, tracheid wall thickness (wt,), radial and tangential diameters, fibre coarseness (co) and specific surface area (sa), within standing red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) trees, was investigated. The data acquisition phase involved 3 basic steps: (1) random selection of 54 sample trees from 2 intensively-managed 80-year-old plantations in central Canada; (2) attainment of cardinal-based vd measurements transecting the breast-height position on each sample tree; and (3) felling, sectioning and obtaining cross-sectional samples from the first 5.3 m sawlog from which Silviscan-based area-weighted mean attribute estimates were determined. The data analysis phase consisted of applying graphical and correlation analyses to specify regression models for each of the 8 attribute-acoustic velocity relationships. Results indicated that viable relationships were obtained for me, wd, wt, co and sa based on a set of statistical measures: goodness-of-fit (42%, 14%, 45%, 27% and 43% of the variability explained, respectively), lack-of-fit (unbiasedness) and predictive precision (±12%, ±8%, ±7%, ±8% and ±6% error tolerance intervals, respectively). Non-destructive approaches for estimating the prerequisite wd value when deploying the analytical framework were also empirically evaluated. Collectively, the proposed approach and associated results provide the foundation for the development of a comprehensive and precise end-product segregation strategy for use in red pine management. View Full-Text
Keywords: dynamic modulus of elasticity; wood density; microfibril angle; tracheid wall thickness; radial and tangential tracheid diameters; fibre coarseness and specific surface area; Silviscan-3; time-of-flight; regression analysis; micro-drill resistance; predictive accuracy; Poisson ratio dynamic modulus of elasticity; wood density; microfibril angle; tracheid wall thickness; radial and tangential tracheid diameters; fibre coarseness and specific surface area; Silviscan-3; time-of-flight; regression analysis; micro-drill resistance; predictive accuracy; Poisson ratio
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Newton, P.F. Acoustic-Based Non-Destructive Estimation of Wood Quality Attributes within Standing Red Pine Trees. Forests 2017, 8, 380.

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