Next Article in Journal
Direct Measurement of Tree Height Provides Different Results on the Assessment of LiDAR Accuracy
Previous Article in Journal
Resource Limitations Influence Growth and Vigor of Idaho Fescue, a Common Understory Species in Pacific Northwest Ponderosa Pine Forests
Previous Article in Special Issue
Identification and Target Prediction of MicroRNAs in Ulmus pumila L. Seedling Roots under Salt Stress by High-Throughput Sequencing
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Forests 2017, 8(1), 3; doi:10.3390/f8010003

Adaptive Variation and Introgression of a CONSTANS-Like Gene in North American Red Oaks

Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1598, USA
School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931-1295, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Stephen P. DiFazio and John MacKay
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3135 KB, uploaded 22 December 2016]   |  


Oaks provide a model system to study maintenance of species identity by divergent selection since they maintain morphological differences and ecological adaptations despite interspecific hybridization. The genome of closely related interfertile oak species was shown to be largely homogeneous, with a few genomic areas exhibiting high interspecific differentiation possibly as result of strong divergent selection. Previously, a genic microsatellite was identified as under strong divergent selection, being nearly fixed on alternative alleles in the two interfertile North American red oak species: Quercus rubra L. and Quercus ellipsoidalis E.J. Hill. Further genotyping in two other red oak species—Quercus velutina Lam. and Quercus coccinea Münchh.—revealed a similar bias for the Q. ellipsoidalis-specific allele. To further elucidate the basis of this differentiation, we sequenced the microsatellite in individuals from all four red oak species. Sequence variability was observed in the microsatellite motif which encodes a poly-Q repeat in a COL gene involved in phenology and growth. Furthermore, in neighboring (parapatric) Q. rubra/Q. ellipsoidalis populations, introgression of the Q. ellipsoidalis-specific allele into Q. rubra occurred at a lower rate than introgression of the Q. rubra-specific allele into Q. ellipsoidalis despite symmetric interspecific gene flow, indicating potential adaptive introgression. Introgression of adaptive alleles can be an important mechanism for rapid adaptation to new environmental conditions (e.g., climate change). View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptive introgression; Expressed Sequence Tag-Simple Sequence Repeats (EST-SSRs); outlier genes; Quercus; Lobatae adaptive introgression; Expressed Sequence Tag-Simple Sequence Repeats (EST-SSRs); outlier genes; Quercus; Lobatae

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lind-Riehl, J.F.; Gailing, O. Adaptive Variation and Introgression of a CONSTANS-Like Gene in North American Red Oaks. Forests 2017, 8, 3.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top