Next Article in Journal
Diameter Growth, Biological Rotation Age and Biomass of Chinese Fir in Burning and Clearing Site Preparations in Subtropical China
Previous Article in Journal
Variation in Mountain Vegetation Composition between the East and the West Sides of Southern Taiwan
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2016, 7(8), 178; doi:10.3390/f7080178

Reproductive Success and Inbreeding Differ in Fragmented Populations of Pinus rzedowskii and Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii, Two Endemic Mexican Pines under Threat

1
Laboratorio de Vida Silvestre, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. Francisco J. Mujica S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacán CP 58030, Mexico
2
Laboratorio de Genética, Facultad de Agrobiología, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. Revolución Esquina con Berlin S/N, Colonia Viveros, Uruapan, Michoacán CP 60170, Mexico
3
Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Colonia San Juanito Itzicuaro, Morelia, Michoacán CP 58330, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fei-Hai Yu and Timothy A. Martin
Received: 19 June 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5424 KB, uploaded 18 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Seed production, quality, germination and seedling establishment are indicators of reproductive success in conifers. Monitoring of these parameters is essential to determine the viability of populations for the purposes of conservation. We analyze cone and seed traits as indicators of reproductive success in the endangered Rzedowski´s pine (Pinus rzedowskii (Madrigal et Caballero) and near-threatened veitchii pine (Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii (Shaw)) in west-central Michoacán, Mexico. These traits were systematically quantified and their variation assessed using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs). We found that the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine seems to be critical, presenting low seed efficiency (17.10%), germination (5.0%) and seedling establishment (27.7%), with high levels of inbreeding (0.79). In contrast, veitchii pine presents moderate seed efficiency (54.9%), high germination (71.5%) and seedling establishment (84%–97%) and low inbreeding (0.33). Reproductive indicators differed significantly among zones and populations for each species, where fragment sizes mainly affected seed production and efficiency. This result indicates that fragmentation has played a more important role in the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine than in veitchii pine, perhaps by limiting pollen flow among zones and populations and producing higher levels of inbreeding and lower seed efficiency in the former species. We propose a conservation strategy for these important pine species in order to increase their long-term genetic viability. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pinus; reproductive indicators; inbreeding index; fragmentation; conservation Pinus; reproductive indicators; inbreeding index; fragmentation; conservation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Castilleja Sánchez, P.; Delgado Valerio, P.; Sáenz-Romero, C.; Herrerías Diego, Y. Reproductive Success and Inbreeding Differ in Fragmented Populations of Pinus rzedowskii and Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii, Two Endemic Mexican Pines under Threat. Forests 2016, 7, 178.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top