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Forests 2016, 7(8), 175; doi:10.3390/f7080175

Optimum Vegetation Conditions for Successful Establishment of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.)

1
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Canadian Wood Fibre Centre, 1219 Queen St. E., Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 2E5, Canada
2
Ontario Forest Research Institute, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, 1235 Queen Street East, Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 2E5, Canada
3
Nipissing Forest Resource Management Inc., P.O. Box 179, 128 Lansdowne Ave., Callander, ON P0H 1H0, Canada
4
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Canadian Wood Fibre Centre, 1350 Regent St., Fredericton, NB E3B 5P7, Canada
5
Canadian Institute of Forestry, 237 Crown Cresent, North Bay, ON P1A 3S7, Canada
Retired.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mark S. Ashton and Timothy A. Martin
Received: 5 May 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 13 August 2016
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Abstract

The 10th-growing season performance of planted eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) seedlings was evaluated in response to herbaceous and woody vegetation control treatments within a clearcut and two variants of the uniform shelterwood regeneration system (single vs. multiple future removal cuts). Herbaceous vegetation control involved the suppression of grasses, forbs, ferns and low shrubs for the first 2 or 4 growing seasons after planting. Deciduous woody vegetation control treatments, conducted in combination with the herbaceous treatments within a response-surface design, involved the permanent removal of all tall shrubs and deciduous trees at the time of planting, at the end of the 2nd or 5th growing seasons, or not at all. In general, the average size of planted pine was related positively to the duration of herbaceous vegetation control and negatively to delays in woody control. White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck) altered these trends, reducing the height of pine on plots with little or no overtopping deciduous woody vegetation or mature tree cover. Where natural pine regeneration occurred on these plots, growth was similar but subordinate to the planted pine. Data from the three sites indicate that at least 60% of planted pine may be expected to reach an age-10 height target of 2.5 m when overtopping cover (residual overstory + regenerating deciduous) is managed at approximately 65% ± 10%, and total herbaceous cover is suppressed to levels not exceeding 50% in the first five years. On productive sites, this combination may be difficult to achieve in a clearcut, and requires fairly rigorous vegetation management in shelterwood regeneration systems. Currently, synthetic herbicides offer the only affordable and effective means of achieving such vegetation control. View Full-Text
Keywords: eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.); uniform shelterwood; competition; vegetation management; silviculture eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.); uniform shelterwood; competition; vegetation management; silviculture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pitt, D.G.; Hoepting, M.K.; Parker, W.C.; Morneault, A.E.; Lanteigne, L.; Stinson, A.; Farrell, J.C.G. Optimum Vegetation Conditions for Successful Establishment of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.). Forests 2016, 7, 175.

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