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Forests 2016, 7(6), 124; doi:10.3390/f7060124

Enhancing Stand Structure through Snag Creation in Northeastern U.S. Forests: Using Ethanol Injections and Bark Beetle Pheromones to Artificially Stress Red Maple and White Pine

1
U.S. Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, 271 Mast Rd., Durham, NH 03824, USA
2
Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust, 1461 Old Keene Rd., Athol, MA 01331, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christopher J. Fettig
Received: 30 April 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Defense Physiology to Bark Beetles)
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Abstract

We investigated two methods to create white pine and red maple snags in a forested setting. The first involved injecting trees with ethanol at two times (single Ethanol (ETOH) and double ETOH injections) to increase attractiveness to insects and elicit attacks on trees. The second method was unique to white pines and involved both injection treatments in combination with baiting trees with Ips-specific pheromones. Three of five white pines from the double ETOH treatment died in the second year. Species including Ips pini (Say), Ips grandicollis Eichhoff, Orthotomicus caelatus Eichhoff, Crypturgus borealis Swaine and Monochamus notatus (Drury) responded more strongly to at least one of the treatments over control trees. However, there were no differences found in individual Scolytinae or Cerambycidae species response to treatments in red maple. Fitness (FV/FM) and vitality (PIabs) were both significantly reduced in both ETOH treatments compared to controls in white pine. In red maple, fitness was reduced in the double ETOH treated trees but the final mean FV/FM values were within the approximate optimal of health. Ethanol injections, in combination with Ips-specific semiochemicals, show promise for creating standing coarse woody debris (CWD) in white pine. Injecting ethanol was not effective for stressing red maple. View Full-Text
Keywords: coarse woody debris; tree stress; tree colonization; tree fitness; tree vitality; arboreal beetles coarse woody debris; tree stress; tree colonization; tree fitness; tree vitality; arboreal beetles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dodds, K.J.; Hanavan, R.P.; Wansleben, T. Enhancing Stand Structure through Snag Creation in Northeastern U.S. Forests: Using Ethanol Injections and Bark Beetle Pheromones to Artificially Stress Red Maple and White Pine. Forests 2016, 7, 124.

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