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Forests 2016, 7(3), 58; doi:10.3390/f7030058

Calorific Value and Chemical Composition of Five Semi-Arid Mexican Tree Species

1
Departamento de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66450, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, Mexico
2
Laboratorio de Tecnología de la madera, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Carretera Nacional, Km 145, C.P. 67700, Linares, Nuevo León, Mexico
3
Facultad de Ingeniería en Tecnología de la Madera, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Gral. Francisco J. Múgica S/N Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58030, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico
4
Faculty of Resources Management, University of Applied Sciences and Arts (HAWK), Büsgenweg 1A, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jarmo Holopainen and Timothy A. Martin
Received: 1 December 2015 / Revised: 18 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
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Abstract

The current global energy crisis has generated growing interest in looking for alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, presenting lignocellulosic materials as a promising resource for sustainable energy production. In this paper, the calorific values and chemical composition of the trunks, branches, twigs and leaves of five timber species of the semi-arid land of Mexico (Helietta parvifolia (Gray) Benth., Ebenopsis ebano (Berl.) Barneby, Acacia berlandieri (Benth.), Havardia pallens (Benth.) Britton & Rose and Acacia wrightii (Benth.)) were determined according to international standards. The results highlighted the calorific value ranges of 17.56 to 18.61 MJ kg−1 in trunks, 17.15 to 18.45 MJ kg−1 in branches, 17.29 to 17.92 MJ kg−1 in twigs, and 17.35to 19.36 MJ kg−1 in leaves. The pH presented an acidic trend (3.95–5.64). The content of mineral elements varied in trunks (1.09%–2.29%), branches (0.86%–2.75%), twigs (4.26%–6.76%) and leaves (5.77%–11.79%), showing the higher proportion in Ca (57.03%–95.53%), followed by K (0.95%–19.21%) and Mg (0.88%–13.47%). The highest amount of extractives was obtained in the methanolic solvent (3.96%–17.03%). The lignin recorded values of 28.78%–35.84% for trunks, 17.14%–31.39% for branches and 20.61%–29.92% for twigs. Lignin showed a moderately strong correlation (r = 0.66) with calorific value, but the best mathematical model was registered with the calorific value depending on the pH and lignin (R2 = 58.86%). View Full-Text
Keywords: calorific value; chemical components; timber species calorific value; chemical components; timber species
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ngangyo-Heya, M.; Foroughbahchk-Pournavab, R.; Carrillo-Parra, A.; Rutiaga-Quiñones, J.G.; Zelinski, V.; Pintor-Ibarra, L.F. Calorific Value and Chemical Composition of Five Semi-Arid Mexican Tree Species. Forests 2016, 7, 58.

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