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Forests 2016, 7(12), 319; doi:10.3390/f7120319

Effect of Timber Harvest Intensities and Fertilizer Application on Stocks of Soil C, N, P, and S

1
School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2100, USA
2
Forest Science Department, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba SP 13418-900, Brazil
3
Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13416-000, Brazil
4
Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro 23890-000, Brazil
5
Forest Science and Research Institute (IPEF), Piracicaba, São Paulo 13400-970 Private Bag 530, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Scott X. Chang and Xiangyang Sun
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Cycling and Plant Nutrition in Forest Ecosystems)
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the stocks of available P and S, total N, and oxidizable C at depth in an Oxisol cultivated with Eucalyptus in Brazil following different timber harvest intensities and fertilizer application over 12 years. The harvest regimes considered were (i) conventional stem-only harvest (all forest residues were maintained on the soil); (ii) whole-tree harvest (only litter was maintained on the soil—all slash, stemwood, and bark were removed); and (iii) whole-tree harvest + litter layer removal. The site was planted in 2004 considering three timber harvest intensities, some with and some without N and P fertilization. In 2012 the experiment was reinstalled, and all the treatments were reapplied in the each plot. From 2004 to 2016, nutrient accumulation and soil N, P, and S stocks were assessed in the 0–20 cm layer. Also in 2016, soil N, P, S, and oxidizable C stocks were measured to 2 m depth. For each treatment, the net balance of N, P, and S were calculated from soil stocks and harvest outputs during two forest rotations. A reduction in all nutrient stocks was observed in the 0–20 cm layer for all treatments. For N, this reduction was 20% smaller in the stem-only harvest treatment and 40% higher when no N fertilizer was applied, when compared to other treatments. Stem-only harvest treatment was observed to reduce the loss of N, P, and S due to harvest by 300, 30, and 25 kg·ha−1, respectively, when compared to the whole-tree harvest + litter layer removal treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrient cycling; forest residue management; Eucalyptus; nitrogen; carbon; phosphorus; sulfur; minimum tillage nutrient cycling; forest residue management; Eucalyptus; nitrogen; carbon; phosphorus; sulfur; minimum tillage
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Menegale, M.L.; Rocha, J.H.T.; Harrison, R.; Goncalves, J.L.M.; Almeida, R.F.; Piccolo, M.C.; Hubner, A.; Arthur Junior, J.C.; de Vicente Ferraz, A.; James, J.N.; Michelsen-Correa, S. Effect of Timber Harvest Intensities and Fertilizer Application on Stocks of Soil C, N, P, and S. Forests 2016, 7, 319.

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