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Forests 2016, 7(1), 21; doi:10.3390/f7010021

Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen

1
Department of Integrative Biology, CB 171, University of Colorado Denver, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217, USA
2
Department of Geography, Virginia Tech, 115 Major Williams Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
3
U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory, 5775 US Hwy 10 West, Missoula, MT 59808, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric J. Jokela
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation in Forests)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3531 KB, uploaded 19 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus) in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions generally as an important keystone and foundation species. In the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine facilitates the development of krummholz conifer communities in the alpine-treeline ecotone (ATE), and thus potentially provides capacity for critical ecosystem services such as snow retention and soil stabilization. The invasive, exotic pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust, now occurs nearly rangewide in whitebark pine communities, to their northern limits. Here, we synthesize data from 10 studies to document geographic variation in structure, conifer species, and understory plants in whitebark pine treeline communities, and examine the potential role of these communities in snow retention and regulating downstream flows. Whitebark pine mortality is predicted to alter treeline community composition, structure, and function. Whitebark pine losses in the ATE may also alter response to climate warming. Efforts to restore whitebark pine have thus far been limited to subalpine communities, particularly through planting seedlings with potential blister rust resistance. We discuss whether restoration strategies might be appropriate for treeline communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pinus albicaulis; alpine-treeline ecotone; biodiversity; community structure; keystone species; foundation species; ecosystem services; exotic pathogen; white pine blister rust; restoration Pinus albicaulis; alpine-treeline ecotone; biodiversity; community structure; keystone species; foundation species; ecosystem services; exotic pathogen; white pine blister rust; restoration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tomback, D.F.; Resler, L.M.; Keane, R.E.; Pansing, E.R.; Andrade, A.J.; Wagner, A.C. Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen. Forests 2016, 7, 21.

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