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Forests 2015, 6(9), 3353-3368; doi:10.3390/f6093353

Impact of Seed Transmission on the Infection and Development of Pitch Canker Disease in Pinus radiata

1
Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Centro de Investigación Forestal (INIA-CIFOR), Madrid 28040, Spain
2
NEIKER, Granja Modelo de Arkaute. Apdo 46. Vitoria-Gasteiz 01080, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jan Stenlid, Jonas Oliva and Audrius Menkis
Received: 25 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 23 September 2015
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of seed inoculum on subsequent disease development in nurseries, specifically studying incidence of seed infection, transmission rate of seed to seedlings, and rate of disease development from the primary inoculum source. Transmission rate of Fusarium circinatum (F. circinatum) from symptomatic trees of Pinus radiata (P. radiata) to seed was 0.73%, being the fungus mainly on the coat. Seed infection incidence was positively correlated with tree disease severity. Seeds also become contaminated with F. circinatum during storage, where high relative humidity had a great effect regardless of temperature. Transmission rates from seeds to symptomatic seedlings measured at 48 days after seed inoculation with 104 and 106 was 28% and 80%, respectively. Seedlings showed symptoms of wilting and dieback, and eventually died within the total duration of this study (475 days). By this time, there were two remaining symptomless seedlings (1% of the total). F. circinatum was recovered from each of them, demonstrating its persistence in seedlings. Fungus populations in roots were estimated between 105 and 107 cfu/g in symptomatic plants for both inoculum doses and up to 104 cfu/g in asymptomatic plants. Disease infection rate was similar in post-emergence damping-off (up two months growing) and for established seedlings (up to eight months) after seeds were inoculated with 104 spores/mL. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium circinatum; nursery; seed infection incidence; seed contamination; seed transmission rate; persistence; infection rate; damping-off Fusarium circinatum; nursery; seed infection incidence; seed contamination; seed transmission rate; persistence; infection rate; damping-off
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Evira-Recuenco, M.; Iturritxa, E.; Raposo, R. Impact of Seed Transmission on the Infection and Development of Pitch Canker Disease in Pinus radiata. Forests 2015, 6, 3353-3368.

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