Extent and Severity of Caliciopsis Canker in New England, USA: An Emerging Disease of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.)
AbstractCaliciopsis canker is an emerging problem in Pinus growing regions of Eastern North America. The fungal disease caused by Caliciopsis pinea is associated with overstocked stands and poor sites, but few quantitative data are available. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess the extent and severity of Caliciopsis canker and to explore environmental variables associated with disease to identify areas at risk of damage. During 2014, 58 sites across New England with >75% P. strobus basal area in public lands were surveyed. Most sites (72%) had Caliciopsis canker signs or symptoms. Caliciopsis pinea was successfully identified with molecular techniques. In sites with Caliciopsis canker, 36% of the mature pines were symptomatic. Pole sized and suppressed trees were more likely to be damaged than larger trees with dominant crown positions (p < 0.05). Pinus strobus density for sites with Caliciopsis canker was 311 trees/ha (mean P. strobus stand diameter = 40 cm) compared to 220 trees/ha (mean white pine stand diameter = 43 cm) for sites without Caliciopsis canker (p = 0.1). Caliciopsis canker symptoms tended to appear more frequently in stands with excessively drained, coarse textured soils derived from glacial outwash (86%) or stands with poorly drained soils and low fertility (78%) than in stands with well drained, more fertile soils (59%) (p = 0.1). The severity of symptoms varied among soil groups and was greater for excessively drained, nutrient poor soils than for well-drained, more fertile soils (p = 0.027). View Full-Text
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Munck, I.A.; Livingston, W.; Lombard, K.; Luther, T.; Ostrofsky, W.D.; Weimer, J.; Wyka, S.; Broders, K. Extent and Severity of Caliciopsis Canker in New England, USA: An Emerging Disease of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.). Forests 2015, 6, 4360-4373.
Munck IA, Livingston W, Lombard K, Luther T, Ostrofsky WD, Weimer J, Wyka S, Broders K. Extent and Severity of Caliciopsis Canker in New England, USA: An Emerging Disease of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.). Forests. 2015; 6(11):4360-4373.Chicago/Turabian Style
Munck, Isabel A.; Livingston, William; Lombard, Kyle; Luther, Thomas; Ostrofsky, William D.; Weimer, Jennifer; Wyka, Stephen; Broders, Kirk. 2015. "Extent and Severity of Caliciopsis Canker in New England, USA: An Emerging Disease of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.)." Forests 6, no. 11: 4360-4373.