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Forests, Volume 5, Issue 1 (January 2014), Pages 1-213

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Forests: An International and Interdisciplinary Scientific Open Access Journal
Forests 2014, 5(1), 206-213; doi:10.3390/f5010206
Received: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forests was established to provide comprehensive coverage on the ecology, conservation and management of forests, with the first issue published in March 2010. As an international and multi-disciplinary journal, Forests has provided a forum for publishing process–based and applied scholarly articles that span
[...] Read more.
Forests was established to provide comprehensive coverage on the ecology, conservation and management of forests, with the first issue published in March 2010. As an international and multi-disciplinary journal, Forests has provided a forum for publishing process–based and applied scholarly articles that span the technological, environmental, cultural, economic, and social realm associated with the management, use, conservation, and understanding of forested ecosystems. By all accounts, Forests is well poised toward becoming a premier publication outlet in this diverse field of study. In its short tenure, Forests received its first Impact Factor in 2013 (1.094—Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science), which placed it 25th out of 62 Forestry journals. Notably, Forests ranked first among the open access journals in this category. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Large-Scale Regeneration Patterns of Pinus nigra Subsp. salzmannii: Poor Evidence of Increasing Facilitation Across a Drought Gradient
Forests 2014, 5(1), 1-20; doi:10.3390/f5010001
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 December 2013 / Published: 31 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tree recruitment is a key process underlying stand dynamics and sustainability in managed forests. Woody plant cover is known to affect the regeneration success of Pinus nigra, suggesting the existence of facilitative plant-plant interactions. The regeneration patterns of this Mediterranean pine were
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Tree recruitment is a key process underlying stand dynamics and sustainability in managed forests. Woody plant cover is known to affect the regeneration success of Pinus nigra, suggesting the existence of facilitative plant-plant interactions. The regeneration patterns of this Mediterranean pine were analyzed across its distribution area, using data from 3226 plots of the Spanish National Forest Inventory. We aimed to test the hypothesis that seedlings establishment occurs under higher values of either canopy or shrub cover in the driest populations, as predicted by the stress-gradient hypothesis. Data were analyzed by means of Generalized Linear Models and multivariate methods. Results revealed that regeneration failure occurs on a regional scale, and that regeneration is facilitated by tree canopy cover of 55%–80%. A non-linear pattern of interaction along an aridity gradient was identified, with competition at the wettest site, high facilitation at the mid-dry sites, and low facilitation at the driest site. Evidence suggests that some shrub species may facilitate recruitment in the harsher areas. Collectively, our results reduce the possibilities of adapting forest management to drying climates by the application of alternative silvicultural prescriptions involving canopy cover. Full article
Open AccessArticle Population Dynamics of Lepidoptera Pests in Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in the Brazilian Amazonia
Forests 2014, 5(1), 72-87; doi:10.3390/f5010072
Received: 15 October 2013 / Revised: 6 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 10 January 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forestry companies study the population dynamics of insect pests in Integrated Pest Management for cost effectiveness. The objective of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on population fluctuation of the Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus urophylla plants in the Brazilian Amazon
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Forestry companies study the population dynamics of insect pests in Integrated Pest Management for cost effectiveness. The objective of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on population fluctuation of the Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus urophylla plants in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. In all, 402 species were collected, of which 10 were primary pests, nine were secondary pests, and the remaining bore no definite relevance to eucalyptus. Primary pests formed a low percentage of the total species, although they recorded a high percentage of the total number of individuals. The abundance of secondary pests, except in Caracuru, was less than 150 specimens annually. Primary pests showed higher population peaks during periods of low precipitation. The small number of species and the high abundance of primary and secondary pests could be due to the availability of food, or a deficiency in natural biological control. This suggests the possibilities of population outbreaks in the eucalyptus plantations. The period of highest occurrence for insect species in these crops must be identified so that suitable strategies can be developed for Integrated Pest Management. Full article
Open AccessArticle Composition and Elevation of Spruce Forests Affect Susceptibility to Bark Beetle Attacks: Implications for Forest Management
Forests 2014, 5(1), 88-102; doi:10.3390/f5010088
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 31 December 2013 / Accepted: 6 January 2014 / Published: 14 January 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is one of the most destructive insects infesting spruce forests in Europe. Data concerning infestations of I. typographus occurring over the last 19 years (1994–2012) on the Southern Alps were analyzed in seven
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The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is one of the most destructive insects infesting spruce forests in Europe. Data concerning infestations of I. typographus occurring over the last 19 years (1994–2012) on the Southern Alps were analyzed in seven spruce forest types: (1) pure spruce plantations; (2) pure spruce reforestations; (3) pure spruce mountain forests; (4) pure spruce alpine forests; (5) spruce-conifer mixed forests; (6) spruce-broadleaf mixed forests; and (7) spruce-conifer-broadleaf mixed forests. The collected data included the amount of I. typographus damage and the location and composition of the infested forests. The results indicate that different forest types are differently susceptible to I. typographus. Plantations, reforestations and mountain spruce forests show mean damage and mean number of infestations higher than other forest types. Within pure spruce forests, alpine forests growing at high elevations (>1300 m) suffer low damage. Furthermore, the mean number of infestation spots recorded annually in the different spruce forest types is negatively correlated with a Naturality Index value. The results suggest that forest composition and elevation are the main factors driving the risk of I. typographus damage. A new management strategy for some spruce forest types is needed, with a progressive reduction of pure spruce forests at low altitude and an increase of broadleaf composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Bark Beetles and Forests)
Open AccessArticle Spatial Pattern of Populus euphratica Forest Change as Affected by Water Conveyance in the Lower Tarim River
Forests 2014, 5(1), 134-152; doi:10.3390/f5010134
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To restore declining species, including Populus euphratica and other riparian communities, in the river ecosystem of the lower Tarim River, the ecological water conveyance project (EWCP), as a part of an integrated water resource management plan, was implemented in 2000. The EWCP aims
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To restore declining species, including Populus euphratica and other riparian communities, in the river ecosystem of the lower Tarim River, the ecological water conveyance project (EWCP), as a part of an integrated water resource management plan, was implemented in 2000. The EWCP aims to schedule and manage the water resources in the upper reaches and transfer water to the lower reaches by a series of intermittent water deliveries. The delivered water flows along a modified river channel and nourishes riparian communities by river overflow flooding. Since it began, it has caused a fierce debate over the response of riparian vegetation to the water conveyance scheme. This study focuses on the lower Tarim River, where Populus euphratica forests have undergone watering, due to the EWCP. Twelve Landsat sensor images and one IKONOS satellite imagery acquired between 1999 and 2009 were used to monitor the change in Populus euphratica forests. Bi-temporal change detection and temporal trajectory analysis were employed to represent the spatial pattern of the forest change. Field investigations were used to analyze the driving forces behind forest change from the perspectives of anthropogenic activities and natural forces. The results showed that Populus euphratica forest have been declining in area, which implies that ecological risks have been increased during the watering process. However, forests areas have increased in the regions where the water supply is abundant, and vice versa. Full article
Open AccessArticle Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments
Forests 2014, 5(1), 153-176; doi:10.3390/f5010153
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa
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Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD) and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD). Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B). A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees) died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (10,655 trees), specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height). Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7%) than LoD (4.2%). The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Bark Beetles and Forests)
Open AccessArticle Ecological Variability and Carbon Stock Estimates of Mangrove Ecosystems in Northwestern Madagascar
Forests 2014, 5(1), 177-205; doi:10.3390/f5010177
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 3 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (3075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mangroves are found throughout the tropics, providing critical ecosystem goods and services to coastal communities and supporting rich biodiversity. Despite their value, world-wide, mangroves are being rapidly degraded and deforested. Madagascar contains approximately 2% of the world’s mangroves, >20% of which has been
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Mangroves are found throughout the tropics, providing critical ecosystem goods and services to coastal communities and supporting rich biodiversity. Despite their value, world-wide, mangroves are being rapidly degraded and deforested. Madagascar contains approximately 2% of the world’s mangroves, >20% of which has been deforested since 1990 from increased extraction for charcoal and timber and conversion to small to large-scale agriculture and aquaculture. Loss is particularly prominent in the northwestern Ambaro and Ambanja bays. Here, we focus on Ambaro and Ambanja bays, presenting dynamics calculated using United States Geological Survey (USGS) national-level mangrove maps and the first localized satellite imagery derived map of dominant land-cover types. The analysis of USGS data indicated a loss of 7659 ha (23.7%) and a gain of 995 ha (3.1%) from 1990–2010. Contemporary mapping results were 93.4% accurate overall (Kappa 0.9), with producer’s and user’s accuracies ≥85%. Classification results allowed partitioning mangroves in to ecologically meaningful, spectrally distinct strata, wherein field measurements facilitated estimating the first total carbon stocks for mangroves in Madagascar. Estimates suggest that higher stature closed-canopy mangroves have average total vegetation carbon values of 146.8 Mg/ha (±10.2) and soil organic carbon of 446.2 (±36.9), supporting a growing body of studies that mangroves are amongst the most carbon-dense tropical forests. Full article

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies
Forests 2014, 5(1), 21-71; doi:10.3390/f5010021
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 15 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 3 January 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the
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Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the biology, ecology and management of spruce and spruce beetle populations. This paper is a review of literature on spruce beetle focusing on work published since the late 1970s and is intended as an addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Bark Beetles and Forests)
Open AccessReview Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?
Forests 2014, 5(1), 103-133; doi:10.3390/f5010103
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 27 December 2013 / Accepted: 6 January 2014 / Published: 15 January 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on
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While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Bark Beetles and Forests)

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