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Correction published on 23 March 2015, see Forests 2015, 6(3), 858.

Open AccessReview
Forests 2014, 5(11), 2750-2772; doi:10.3390/f5112750

Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States

1
Weyerhaeuser Company, Timberlands Technology, 1785 Weyerhaeuser Road, Vanceboro, NC 28586, USA
2
Weyerhaeuser Company, WTC 1A5, P.O. Box 9777, Federal Way, WA 98063, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [608 KB, uploaded 17 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Intensively-managed forest (IMF) ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1) critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2) effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3) two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse woody debris (CWD); and (4) research needs for effective management of salamanders in IMF ecosystems. Although plethodontid salamanders are sensitive to microclimate changes, their role as ecological indicators rarely have been evaluated quantitatively. Our case studies of CWD and salamanders in western and eastern forests demonstrated effects of species, region and spatial scale on the existence and strength of relationships between plethodontid species and a “critical” microhabitat variable. Oregon slender salamanders (Batrachoseps wrighti) were more strongly associated with abundance of CWD in managed second growth forests than ensatina salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzii). Similarly, CWD was not an important predictor of abundance of Appalachian salamanders in managed hardwood forest. Gaining knowledge of salamanders in IMF ecosystems is critical to reconciling ecological and economic objectives of intensive forest management, but faces challenges in design and implementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: intensive forest management; plantation; plethodontid; production forestry; salamander; woody debris intensive forest management; plantation; plethodontid; production forestry; salamander; woody debris
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Homyack, J.A.; Kroll, A.J. Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States. Forests 2014, 5, 2750-2772.

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